Indian culture has developed through its system of education. This system was especially fruitful in propagating the ideas of love, truth, non-violence, religion, and peace and world brotherhood. It also pointed out the path to salvation.
It was also responsible for the creation and preservation of literature. F.E. Keay has expressed wonder at the fact that though divine texts were composed such a long time age, and that though it seemed impossible to preserve them intact, this was done, and is still being done today. The education of this period possessed the following features:
1. It paid the greatest attention to the child’s physical and mental development.
2. It was conscious of the development of the child’s character.
3. The Gurukulas were situated at a distance from inhabited areas so as to prevent excessive contact between students and society.
4. In the teacher’s house, there was an abundance of family feeling. Students did not suffer from the lack of any familial necessity.
5. The teachers imparted education without any discrimination.
Demerits of education in the Brahman age certain demerits stood, had crept into the educational system of the Brahman age. They were:
1. Dominance of Religion
Since education was dominated by religion, less importance was attached to material or worldly development. This dominance also led to an increase in an anarchic attitude towards religion among the students and prevented the growth of rational thought.
2. Emphasis upon Philosophy
Education during this period laid excessive stress upon the study of philosophy, since the purpose was to put the student onto the path to salvation through a study of philosophy. The result was the growth of an escapist attitude towards life.
3. Deprivation of the Shudras (‘s) Right to Education
During this period, the right to education became confined to the Brahmans, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, because of the emergence of aristocracy. The Shudras were deprived of the right to education.
4. Faith in the Vedas
In this period, people came to have blinded faith in the Vedas they were convinced that only the Vedas were true consequently, the tendency towards logical and rational thought was hampered.
5. Women Education
There is some evidence of education of women during the Vedic period, but during the Brahman age, this was neglected. In addition, women became the victims of many restraints
6. Lack of Handicrafts
During this age, the caste system became characterized by rigidity and narrow-mindedness. Those engaged in handicrafts came to be regarded as inferior. The consequence to this was that handicrafts gradually vanished from educational curriculum
7. Absence of Synthesis
The education of this period was taking in synthesis. Instead, it laid emphasis upon profound scholarship in any one subject.