M.K. Thomson has classified motivation under two heads.
Natural Motivation is of the following five types
1. Bodily Goals or Motivation
These motivations are nothing but bodily or physical needs, like hunger, thirst, sex, etc. Certain motivations are caused by physical activities such as respiration, throbbing of the heart, digestion, circulation of blood and working of the glands etc.
These motivations are inborn and inspire a person to fulfill the needs of the body. By causing change in the glands of a person, it is possible to bring him to the normal situation. Such a situation will be helpful for the information of motivation.
Various experiments that have been done, put forward the conclusion, that in future, by physical and operational experiments and chemical activities, it shall be possible to bring about changes in the glands of the person. Such a change shall give rise to requisite of natural and required motivations.
Image source: dietsinreview.com/diet_column/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/physical-activity.jpg
Habit is a form of nature of a person. A good habit of a child shall be that which can bring about development in his character and help him in achievement of education.
3. Instinct Motivation
Instincts, as already said, are inborn powers and they inspire the physical organs of the individual to take to certain jobs. Unless a person has satisfied his instincts, he remains restless. Teachers, in order to provide for their satisfaction, should present a normal atmosphere for the students.
4. Feelings and Emotions
Pain and pleasure, joy and distress are the natural feelings and experiences of human nature. This aspect of the nature and the personality is very helpful in that system of education.
Where an atmosphere is aimed to be created, which can bring about the development of the character of the students and help them to educate themselves. This aspect of the personality should be very cautiously handled; otherwise, it can have adverse effect.
5. Emotional motivations
Those motivations, that inspire us to bring about the fulfillment of certain emotional needs, are called “Emotional Motivations”. Emotions are awakened by the outside stimuli.
These stimuli are part of the environment. The teachers should try to create such a healthy environment that the sublimation or motivation of the emotions may be possible.
Other than the above five Main Motivations, there are certain other motivations as well. These motivations are also part of natural motivations. It shall be wise to have an idea about them as well.
1. Social motivations
Due to inspirations from social environment, a person takes to certain activities. These activities are guided by the emotions and the instincts. Normally certain motivations are awakened for the fulfillment of social needs they express themselves in the following forms
(a) Gregariousness is a natural instinct of man. It is therefore natural for him to be guided by social motivations.
(b) Due to social motivations, a person takes up those jobs that are good from the point of view of the society or which are appreciated by the society.
(c) The man has a great social consciousness of getting a place of respect in the society or to get his Self- regarding sentiment fulfilled. Consequently he tries to do certain good things in the society.
2. Individual motivations or motivations of self
Those motivations, that inspire a person to satisfy his personal needs are called individual motivations, beauty, knowledge, faithfulness, competition, ideal, hero worship etc., are personal needs. These needs inspire a person to fulfill his personal desires.
It is the duty of the teachers to create in the students, the desire to acquire knowledge and achieve success. Is the teacher succeed it is, he shall be achieving a great task.
4. Recreation and play
Programmes of games and play are joyful for the students. In plays, elements of direct motivation are present. The elements can therefore, by very nicely utilized for imparting education to the students.
5. Direction and imitation
Children have the tendency to imitate. If proper direction and examples are presented before them, they can improve the power of motivation. They can also lead them towards success.
6. Appreciation and self-expression
It is natural for a man to be inclined towards such goods goals that give him importance and greatness. Social appreciation is another form of this feeling. It is, therefore, necessary to provide students the opportunity to observe these things.
7. Other natural motivations
Other than these things, man is also anxious to have knowledge, love, faith, office, ideal, rest, leadership, achievement of wealth etc. It is quite possible to utilize all these motivations of the child in the field of education. It is clear, that in human nature there is enough material for Natural Motivation.
B. Artificial Motivations
Artificial motivations are of various types. These motivations are not present in the human personality. They are part of the environment or the society. It is useful for the teacher to know and use them. They are being given below:
1. Reward and Punishment
In the works of the school this serves as a very important and useful motivation. It has the following accept as well-
(a) Punishment is a negative motivation. Sometimes it is not very useful for children.
(b) Reward is a positive motivation. Reward may be physical, social, or normal. It is very dear to the students. Teacher should try to use this motivation in such a way that the students may grow into useful future citizens.
It is also a strong motivation. The teacher can use it as a medium of education in the Project Method of Education attempt is made to develop a spirit of co-operation amongst the students. This motivation can be well utilized.