The concept of social development lies in the concept of socialization. To understand that, we have to understand socialization at the time of his birth, a child is very selfish. He does not know about sharing his joys and toys with others.
Round die age of two, he realizes that he is just a little man in the complex order. Others also matter and that he alone does not matter. Giving and taking starts.
This we call socialization and social development. Social development never takes place in isolation. A child left in jungle will not be social. It is as a result of interaction that social development takes place. That is why schools exist. Man gone through schooling is a better socially developed man as compared to one who never went to it.
Various authorities have also defined social development. Few are quoted below:
Freeman and Showel, “By social growth and development we mean increasing ability to get along well with one and others.”
Hurlock, “It is attaining of social relationship.”
In nutshell, socialization means:
(i) Contact with people-its beginning,
(ii) Dealing with people and learning from them,
(iii) It is a conscious activity. It does not take place automatically.
Baby deals with adults in his/her immediate environment. According to Mrs. E. B. Hurlock, the important patterns of his social development during this age are:
2nd month on hearing a voice, the baby turns his head.
4th month Stops crying when talked to and makes movements in anticipation of being lifted.
6th month In touch with the adult ‘talks’ to adult.
2 years. The baby likes to do things independently and runs around for the adults-he can bring the newspaper lying at gate when asked to and when the baby is in mood. Learns to imitate adults
Up to this age, babies indulge in what is known as parallel play
Early Childhood ( 2-6 YEARS)
1. Becomes active members of the group. He participates in group activities.
2. ‘Parallel play’ activity is no longer there.
3. Social development during this stage depends much on his relationship with his parents. He can become likeable individual if relationship is not cordial he will become assertive.
4. He has many friends.
5. He shows preferences for friends.
6. His patterns of social behaviour are-(i) Aggression, (ii) Quarrels, and (Hi) Selfishness.
Latter childhood (6-12 YEARS)
(i) This is called school going age.
(ii) The number of friend’s increases manifold-permanent associations are formed. Social interaction is at its maximum.
(iii) The child is capable of dealing with many social situations.
Later childhood, social development-wise is also known as gang age. Formation of gangs is the peculiar feature of social development in this age.
Gang means small group or a spontaneous local group. It is formed by children themselves. It is not authorized from outside.
Gang has a leader who issues commands.
Gang has a code of ethics.
Gang has secret language.
Gangs disband after sometime.
Girl’s gangs are smaller and firmer.
Gangs meet at a secret place or hide out.
The activities of the gang are mostly anti-social- teasing old men, bullying small children-stealing fruit from neighbour’s garden, fights with other gangs, tearing posters, throwing stones in neighbour’s courtyards etc. They also play cards and go to pictures together.
It is at this age sex differences come in. Boys and girls become conscious of their sex and they tease one another.
(i) Social activities depend upon sex.
(ii) They are conscious of social approval and disapproval.
Adolescent age (12-16 YEARS)
1. Independence from Parents
The adolescent at this stage seeks independence from his parents. He is critical of them.
2. Peer Group Relations Assume Greater Proportions. The friends of child matter. It is the peer groups that shape the behaviour of adolescent. Company at this age matters
3. Heterosexual Relations
Boys begin to take interest in girls and vice versa. Both make themselves attractive. Hence all sorts of beauty aids are used.
4. Friendships are a matter of mutual interest and not of nearness. Two adolescent brothers can have different friends.
5. Sentiments develop during this period.
Role of the Teacher in Social Development
The role of the teacher is very important in social development of the child. His role begins when the child enters the school. The following points highlight his role or educational implications of this topic:
1. Practice What You Preach
Teachers should practise what they preach. Things go wrong when they say one thing and do another.
2. Consistent Behaviour
Teachers should be consistent in their social behaviour towards children. Inconsistency creates problems for them.
In schools and colleges, there should be maximum opportunities for give and take, for “hitting and being hit.” Let there be maximum outings, camps, trips. It socializes the child. The teacher should be liberal in it.
4. Self Government
In school will not only socialise the child but also make him responsible.
5. Avoid Harsh Discipline.
Control will breed scandals. Understand it.
6. Mass Media
(Newspapers, magazines) which have bad influence (like some film magazines) on the development of child intellectually and result in stunted Social growth be not allowed to influence them. Direct the child along healthy lines.
7. Allow the child to display social responsibility. Let him receive guess at a function.
8. Parents and teachers should take children to parties. It socializes them.