This is the most comprehensive model taking into consideration all possible aspects of intellectual activity. This is the only theory which considers creativity (Divergent Production or thinking) along with intelligence. Convergent production or thinking in the same model. At least there are two very significant educational implications of it.
1. In the present world, the body of knowledge is expanding very fast, forcing specialization even at the earlier stages of the educative process. We know already that special aspect of intellectual activity is involved in the different specialization processes, both academic and professional.
We therefore need apriority knowledge about the specific ability of each student to place him in the right line of specialization.
SI Model and analysis of the individual under its guidance can just pinpoint the individual’s abilities and provide us a secure base on which his future learning is to be based.
This sounds like the theory of ‘Perfect Niche’ in educational and vocational guidance where square pegs are placed in square holes and round pegs in round holes.
Probably the fundamental human creativity and freedom will elude it, but surely this is so far the most scientific step as compared to previous attempts.
We are aware that the theory of ‘human multipotentiality is also there where an individual may capable of a group of jobs or activities, rather than a ‘unlimber occupation’, but in that cease his attainment on the various tests constructed on SI model should show corresponding results.
After all the day psychology ceases to attempt to predict human behaviour, it will cease to be a science. Of course there are no such studies which can establish the empirical predictive validity of SI model.
This can be carried out by testing young students on SI Model Tests. Predicting their future success on certain abilities, putting them on those trainings or educational streams and finally evaluating whether they come up to the expectations as held out by the test battery. It is very desirable if a control group is also studied along with.
2. When some students with adequate intelligence fail to learn, corrective teaching (also known as cognitive therapy) in that case first requires an accurate measure of his abilities, and some concrete steps for utilizing his strengths and developing him where he is weak.
Merely knowledge of IQ here is of little use. Only assessment made by SI Model tests can provide here an academically acceptable method of dealing with the problem. This can be a great diagnosis use of this theory.
The various stages of measurement movement
Many attempts have been made to measure intelligence various methods. The measurement movement has passed through various stages.
Gall discovered phrenological approach to measure intelligence. Gall held that intelligence is directly proportional to the size of the head i.e., the larger the head the greater is the intelligence of the individual.
(ii) Stage of Physiognomy
Physiognomy is the science of shape of features of the face. Features of face were taken to be an index of intelligence. According to this view it was held that an individual having sharp and bright facial features is an intelligent individual. But it was found that many students having bright faces did not fare well in the school. So this view was also rejected.
(iii) Brass Instrumental Stage
Psychologists tired of find out certain instruments to find intelligence known as aesthiesometer with this instrument psychologists calculated Aesthiesometric Index of the skin. They held that the lower the Aesthiesometric Index, greater will be the inelligence. This view was also rejected because skin index (resistance) differs from individual to individual.
Modern Intelligence Tests
Psychologists have been interested in knowing the specific mental abilities of the individual’s right from the beginning. Intelligence tests provide useful information about these mental abilities such as in academic, vocational, personal and counselling situations and in many diverse areas.
Intelligence tests have been divided into two parts:
I. Classification on the basis of Administration.
II. Classification on the basis of form.
On the basis of Administration, these tests can be divided into two groups.
The tests which are used to test only one individual at a time are known as individual tests. These tests are Binet Simon Test of intelligence and Terman Test of intelligence. In these tests examiners can pay more attention to the examinee, he can observe and encourage him more closely during the test. They are preferred by psychologists in clinics and hospitals. These tests are time consuming and require trained examiner.
Tests or intelligence which can be administered to a large number of individuals (groups) at a time are called group tests. They can be verbal or non-verbal performance tests. These tests are preferred because they save time and do not require trained examiners. Army Alpha Test, Army Beta Test and Raven’s Progressive Matrices are the examples of group tests.
Classification on the Basis of form
The test in which language is used to give response to the question is called verbal tests, e.g., A bird does not always have:-
(1) Wings (2) Feet (3) Bill (4) Nest
In these types of tests the language is used only in giving necessary instructions to the subjects. These tests involve such activities in which the use of language is not necessary. These tests include items on picture completion, picture arrangement, block design, object assembly and digit symbols.
Individual intelligence tests are further divided into two parts:
Individual Verbal Tests
Individual verbal tests are those tests which are administered to one individual at a time. Binet scale is the example of this test. Individuals are required to use language as well as paper and pencil for giving the responses. The test content is loaded with verbal material. Some of the verbal individual intelligence tests are as under:
French psychologists Binet and Simon have done a pioneer work in the field of intelligence testing. In 1905, they published a scale of intelligence tests, known as Binet-Simon scale. In this scale some 30 tasks, from the simplest to the most complex, were prescribed in a serial order.
The scale was prepared to test feeble-minded children. The scale contained tests for the age group of 3 to 15 years. There were 6 items in the test meant for each age. This scale was being extensively used in almost all the European countries-America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, China, Japan and Russia.
(i) Points to nose, eyes and mouth.
(ii) Repeats two digits.
(iii) Enumerates objects in a picture.
(iv) Gives family name.
(v) Repeats a sentence of syllables.
At an Age – 4
(i) Gives own sex.
(ii) Names key, knife penny.
(iii) Repeats three digits.
(iv) Compares two lines.
At An Age-8
(i) Counts from 20 to 0.
(ii) Notes omissions from pictures.
(iii) Gives day and date.
(iv) Repeats five digits.
At An Age – 12
(i) Composes one sentence containing three given words.
(ii) Names 60 words in three minutes.
(iii) Defines certain abstract words.
(iv) Discovers the sense of a disarranged sentence.
At An Age – 15
(i) Repeats seven digits.
(ii) Repeats a sentence of 20 syllables.
(iii) Interprets pictures.
(iv) Interprets given facts.
In 1916, Terman of Stanford University had given a revision. Terman made some modifications by avoiding certain draw-backs in Binet’s test. He placed six tests in each age group from 3 to 10, eight tests at the age 12, and six tests at the age 14, six at 16 and six at 18. In 1937, Terman revised the Stanford Binet Tests with the help of Merril and published the Revised Stanford Test.
It became useful for the age range of 2 to 18 years. In Stanford-Binet scale 1960, language was used to the highest degree. In it certain items were deleted which were criticised to be out of date.
Individual Non-verbal Tests/Performance Tests
Individual non-verbal tests are mostly performance tests. In performance tests, the content is in the form of material objects and the individual’s response depends upon what he does or performs. Generally, following activities are used in performance tests.
(a) To Fit Block in the Holes
The material consists of a board having holes and numerous blocks. The subject has to fit the blocks in the holes.
(b) Block Building
In these types of tests, the subject is asked to make a structure or design by means of blocks.
(c) Picture Completion or Picture Arrangement
In picture completion tests, the subject completes the picture with the help of given pieces cut out of each picture whereas in picture arrangement, the pictures are to be arranged in series from the given picture i.e., Hally Pictorial Completion Test.
Bhatia Battery Test
The battery has been standardized by Dr. Bhatia to be used under Indian conditions with the purpose of providing differences and comparisons of illiterates and school going children, and for providing useful information for school going children as a supplement to verbal tests. The battery includes 5 tests each with its own sub-tests and time limit.
Minnesota Pre-School Scale
This scale is used to test the intelligence of the children in the age group of 18 months to 5 years.
Group Verbal Intelligence Test
The tests which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time come under this category It includes the following tests:
Therman Group Test
It was prepared in 1920. It includes 10 sub-tests.
Army Alpha Test
This test was applied to the new recruits in the American Army in the First World War. It includes 8 sub-tests.
Army General Classification Test
This test was developed during Second World War to serve the same purpose as the Army Alpha. It contains nine (9) numbers of vocabulary, arithmetic reasoning and block counting items.
In India, many attempts have been made to construct group verbal intelligence tests. A complete list of standardized tests in
Indian conditions are available with NCERT, New Delhi. Some of the popular intelligence tests are:
i. The Group Test of General Mental Ability (Samuhik Mansik Yogyta Pariksha) by Dr. S. Jalota.
ii. General Mental Ability Test by P.S. Hundal (Punjabi)
iii. Group Intelligence Test by Prayag Mehta
iv. Group Test of Intelligence prepared by Bureau of Psychology, Allahabad (Hindi).
Group Non-Verbal Intelligence Test
Terman Mcnemar Test of Mental Ability
It was prepared in 1941. It includes 5 sub-tests.
Army Beta Test
It was developed in World War I in U.S.A. The Army Beta includes tasks such as cube analysis digit symbols, geometrical construction, mazes and picture competition this test was primarily prepared for use in military selection; however, it subsequently proved useful for civilian workers.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
The progressive matrices were developed in U.K. to measure Spearman’s general factor of intelligence. The original test consists of series of sixty matrices involving abstract figures and designs. Each matrix contains a blank section and the subject (student) is directed to select the missing piece from eight choices.
Cattle’s Culture Free Test. It is available for three levels-4 to 8 years, 8 to 12 years and high school to adult. Each series consists of 4 sub-tests which are series, classification, matrices and conditions
Chicago Non-Verbal Tests
This test has been proved most useful for the young children of age 12 and 13 years. C.I.E. non-verbal group intelligence test (adopted in Hindi medium schools it was originally prepared by J.W. Jenkins.
(a) To Identify Individual Differences
On the basis of intelligence scores we can identify the individual differences among students and provide them individual guidance i.e., we can advise students to select subjects keeping into consideration their intellectual abilities.
Intelligence tests can serve a useful purpose for selecting students for different purposes i.e.-
i. For admission to school.
ii. For awarding scholarship.
iii. For selection in jobs.
On the basis of intelligence test results, it is possible to predict the future academic achievement of a child because I Q. remains constant. If the child is dull, his academic achievement is bound to be low and for this, planning can be done in advance, and the child can be advised to opt vocational courses.
Classification of Pupils
Children can be classified into various categories on the basis of intelligence tests. We have children who are of superior intelligence, average intelligence, dull and feeble minded. Children having the same I.Q. may be grouped together and constitute a class. This will endure the uniform progress and avoid educational wastage.
Detection of Various Types of Pupils
Various types of pupils i.e., gifted and feeble-minded etc. can be detected with the help of intelligence tests. Moreover causes of backwardness, delinquency and problematic behaviour can be found.
Award of Scholarships
Scholarships may be given to suitable and appropriate students on the basis of intelligence tests. The Government of India selects some students for the award of scholarship or studying in public schools on the basis of intelligence and achievement tests.
Promotion of Pupils
Intelligence tests can be used to promote pupils.
Use in Research
Intelligence tests are used to a very large extent in educational and psychological research. For example, to find out the causes of delinquency, slow learning and maladjustment among children, intelligence tests are used to see the effect of mental abilities in these abnormalities.
Intelligence tests especially individual tests are used for research with young children, emotionally disturbed cases and cases with special educational disabilities.
Use in Clinics
Intelligence tests are used in clinics and mental hospitals in order to find out how far the disease has impaired intelligence.
Use in Educational and Vocational Guidance
Every vocational and educational course pre-supposes certain levels of intelligence. On the basis of intelligence testing, we can guide the students, whether they should go for studies or adopt some vocational course.
Intellectual ability is one of the most important aspect of personality. Intelligence tests help us to understand the personality disorders among students. These are used to understand delinquent and problem children.
Use in Industry
Intelligence tests are very useful in industry i.e., in selection of the employees in industries, in locating workers who require training and to study working conditions which lead to efficiency.
Use in Army and Civil Services
Since the First World War intelligence tests are extensively used in the Army. Army Alpha and Army Beta tests have been used on laces of persons. Army General Classification tests have been used on millions.
In India, intelligence tests are used in the selection of army officers. Moreover, they are being used in various competitive examinations.
Use in the Study of National and Racial Differences
With the help of intelligence tests we can know the intelligence level of various races and nationalities. Intelligence tests scores show that I.Q., scores of Germans, Japanese and Americans are more than those of Africans and Mexicans.
Helpful in Assessment of Teacher’s Work
‘Teacher’s work can be assessed with the help of intelligence tests. When the achievement of the pupils in a subject does not correspond to the scores of intelligence tests, it indicates that the subject has not been properly taught by the teacher.
Evaluation of Methods and Material of Instruction
Intelligence tests are useful in evaluating the results of the experiments conducted by a school in the relative importance of different textbooks or with a certain text-book with extensive reading material.
Limitations of Intelligence Test
There is shortage of standardized intelligence tests. Hence, we cannot predict the future success of the child in any educational course or vocation with great certainty.
i. These intelligence tests are not reliable. They are not exact measures of intelligence.
ii. These tests are not accurate. They contain only a limited number of questions. This is a very crude method for measuring something as subtle and complex as intelligence.
iii. These tests put premium on speed. Children who are original thinkers and who can give many original alternative answers are penalised.
iv. Intelligence tests are inevitably culture bound and favour the children of well educated parents.
v. Intelligence is comprised on many abilities and traditional intelligence tests measure only a few of these abilities. Many of the abilities which are an essential part of intelligence are not measured by intelligence tests.
vi. Once the teacher knows the I.Q. of the child, he tends to see him through his I.Q. Thus, he becomes partial.