Brief Notes on How to Control the Thermal Pollution?

Waste Heat generation, which is dangerous to waters, can be controlled by transformation to normal temperature by the following methods:

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1. By altering environment of watercourse: Road building, logging, poundments, diverting flows for irrigation.

2. Adding or removing heat.


On national scale, industrial-cooling waters are a first- order source of heat. Electro power generation uses 80% of cooling waters. Best single index of thermal pollution lies in projecting future electric power generation.

Disaster Management

Disaster is a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage, loss and devastation to life and property.

The damage caused by disaster is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and type of earth surface/degree of vulnerability. This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural status of the affected area.


The term disaster is derived from a French word meaning evil or bad star. Disaster is a situation arising from natural forces where large-scale disruption of infrastructure, service occurs, causing a serious impact on human life, economy and environment. Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concerned areas:

1. Normal needs and processes like food, shelter, health etc. are affected and deteriorate depending on the intensity and severity of disaster.

2. It completely disrupts the normal day-to-day life.

3. It negatively influences the emergency systems. Disaster may also term as “A serious disruption of the functioning of society causing widespread human, material or ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources”.


Types of disaster

There are two major types of disaster:

i) Natural

ii) Man-made

Further based on devastation, these are further classified into major/minor natural disasters and major/ minor man-made disasters.

i) Earthquakes

There are 38 earth quake prone cities having more than half a million population. Following measures should be taken for protection against earthquakes:

(a) Aware the people about earthquake.

(b) Safeguard house.

Earthquakes give no warning at all. So at the time of earthquakes precaution and safety is needed. Stop constructions in hilly and prone areas.

ii) Cyclones

Cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons are same disaster type. These disasters are usually more destructive than floods.

iii) Floods

It is an unusual high water stage in which water overflows its natural or artificial banks on dry land. On average floods cause more deaths in a year than any other natural disaster in India, Central Water Commission (CWC) has flood-forecasting systems with 157 flood forecasting centers covering 62 interstate river basins.

iv) Landslides

Landslide, rocks, mud are triggered by earthquakes, volcanoes or weather events. In Central America, the side of Casita Volcano collapsed, creating a landslide/mud flow in Nicaragua and killed 2000 people.

v) Kitchen fire

It is important to know what kind of stove or cooking oven you have in your home-gas, electric, kerosene or where firewood is used. Ensure that the switch or the gas valve is switched off/ turned off immediately after the cooking is over.

An electric burner remains hot and until it cools off, it can be very dangerous. Don’t deep any inflammable article like kerosene near the kitchen fire.


Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to hazardous event of a particular magnitude occurring in a given area over a specific time period. Risk is a function of the probability of particular occurrences and the losses The level of risk depends on i) nature of hazard ii) vulnerability of the elements which are affected and iii) economic value of those elements.


The extent to which a community, structure, service and/or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction and proximity to hazardous terrain or a disaster prone area is called vulnerability.


Hazard is a phenomenon that pose a threat to people, structure or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. They could be either man-made or naturally occurring in our environment. The extent of damage in a disaster depends on

1. The impact, intensity and characteristics of the phenomenon

2. How people, environment and infrastructures are affected by the phenomenon. So,

Disaster Risk = Hazards + Vulnerability

Disaster Management

Government of India and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has signed an agreement on August 2002 for implementation of “Disaster Risk Management”.

This is the programme to reduce the vulnerability of the communities to natural disaster prone areas. The objectives of this programme are:

1. National capacity building support to the Ministry of Home Affairs.

2. Environment building, education, awareness programme and strengthening the capacity at all levels in natural disaster risk management and sustainable recovery

3. Multi hazard preparedness, response and mitigation plans for the programme at state, district, block and village and world levels.

4. Networking knowledge on effective approaches, methods and tools for natural disaster risk management, developing and promoting policy frameworks.

The programme has been divided into two phases over a period of six years. Phase I (2003-04) would provide support to carry out the activities in 28 selected districts in the states Orissa, Gujarat and Bihar. In Phase II (2005- 07), the programme would cover 141 districts in the states Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim, W. Bengal, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Maharashtra, Tamil Naidu, Mizoram, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

Crisis management

1. Understanding risk and vulnerability

2. Monitoring, forecasting and early warning

3. Public awareness programmes

4. Regional and sub regional approaches, strategies and cooperation arrangements

5. Effective policies to regulate further growth of human settlement in risky areas

6. Appropriate legal frameworks that address integrated flood management, risk management strategies, information based support planning and active response for disaster mitigation and reduction

7. The International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) was to reduce disaster and declare the 1991-2000 as decade

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