Population growth refers to the growth of human population for a particular time and space. Population growth determines density, general distribution of population as well as population composition it shows that 1950 onwards population growth is more distinctive between developed and developing countries.
World population continues to grow steadily and rapidly. By the end of 2.010 A.D. population will grow up to 6.25 billion. Between 1980 and 1990 there was an increase in population by 80 million, while between 1990 and 2000 the increase was to the tune of 95 million.
The rate of increase in population is highly significant. Population growth is gradually turning significant. The funnel shape graph with a narrow base and broad top indicates a high growth of world population by the year 2100.
The share of developing countries will increase to 86% though at present the population share of developing countries is 80%, while 20%of population is in developed countries.
However, population growth rate differs from country to country. In general growth rate of developing countries is more than developed countries. Rapid population growth seems to be the only problem for developing countries.
Though fertility rate of China has come down to be on par with developed countries, the base population of China being so high at 1135 million that China will continue to be the highest populated country in the world for some more time.
Density and Regions of High Density of Population
Density of population which means population per sq. km is necessary to be studied because absolute numbers of people living in a country do not provide any indication of the impact of population on the land and its resources:
The average density of population for the world as a whole is about 38 persons per sq-km. according to 1992 estimates, assuming that the entire population is spread uniformly over the land area. The actual density of population varies from region to region. This variation depends upon environmental conditions.
Variation in density of population is classified broadly in three parts as described below.
(a) Regions of high density:
Areas where over 100 persons are found living per sq. km. are called region of high density. Broadly there are four major regions of high density of population. These regions are:
1. Eastern Asia which include China, Japan and Korea.
2. Southern Asia comprises India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
3. North-West Europe includes Great Britain, France, and Belgium. Netherlands, Denmark and Germany.
4. North-Eastern United States comprising, the region between the Great Lakes and Atlantic coast.
(b) Moderate Density Region:
These are those areas where 50-100 persons live per sq. km. These are regions of extensive agriculture and pastoral activities. Industrial development in these regions is quite more. These regions are:
1. River valleys of South-East Asia.
2. Central and Southern Europe.
3. European Russia.
4. Coastal low-lands in middle latitudes regions of South America and South Africa.
(c) Low density Regions:
The density of population in these regions is less than 50 persons per sq.km. Over three-fourth of world’s area has density below 50. Low population density regions are:
1. Polar Regions such as Antarctica and Greenland.
2. High mountains and dissected plateaus with rugged relief.
3. Equatorial rain forest regions such as Amazon and Zaire.
4. Tropical deserts like Sahara and Western Australia.