The settlements in which almost everyone remains engaged in secondary or tertiary activities are known as urban places.
They are also called cities or towns. As they grow, they encroach the surrounding agricultural areas, natural forests etc.
Reasons for Urbanization
1. People move to urban areas to get better income
2. Poor opportunities in the rural area also lead to their migration.
3. Loss of agricultural land of farmers.
4. Low yield in the villages.
5. Fixed income from industries.
6. Lack of supporting infrastructure in rural areas.
7. Better education in the cities.
8. Health care facilities are relatively better in the urban area.
Estimate of Migration of People
In 1975 only 27% of the people were living in urban areas. By 2000 this ratio grew to 40% and by 2003 it became 56%. The developed world is already urbanized with 75% of population living in urban areas.
Megacities Over 10 Million Inhabitants
In 1950, there was only one New York. In 1975 there were five new cities. In 2005 the ratio [few to 15.
Harmful Impacts of Urbanization
1. Vehicles in the urban areas produce hydrocarbons, CO, N20 and lead particles.
2. Air pollution consequently causes reduced solar radiation and smog formation.
3. Various diseases are caused due to overcrowding and noise.
4. The water effluent and waste disposal cause various diseases such as cholera, typhoid etc.
5. Malnutrition and diseases are caused due to shortage of food.
Solutions to the problem are
1. Good urban planning should be done for rational land use.
2. Water supply and drainage system should be improved.
3. Waste water treatment plants and efficient public transportation system should be introduced.
4. Rural development should be done.
5. Waste management should be done.
6. Local people must be awarded to save and protect environment.
7. Supply of clean water should be looked after