The development of human culture by shaping the diversity at genetic, species and ecological levels it is a source of daily life providing food, (crops, livestock, forestry and fish) fiber for clothing, wood for shelter, warmth, medication and energy. Such crop is also called agro biodiversity.
Ecosystem also provide us various supports of production (soil fertility, pollinators, predators, decomposition of wastes) and services like purification of air and water, stabilization of climate, flood decreasing, drought etc.
In biological resources new products developed due to biotechnology. Biodiversity assures environmental sustainability. The average half life of a species is around one million years and 99% of the species that have ever lived on earth are today extinct.
Biodiversity is rich in tropical areas compare to temperate areas due to local species continued to live these itself, whereas in temperate they tend to disperse to other areas. Tropical communities are older and high humidity and warm temperature with more solar energy is favorable for plants survival.
Primental et al (1997) reported in one year:
– 10,000 chemicals extracted from plants
– Genes for plant breeding as genetic resource – 30% yielded increase.
– Microbes for killing waste – $ 150 million.
– Soil formation by earthworm -10-15 million tonnes soil / hectare.
– Bioremediation of 70,000 chemicals by microbes
– Cross pollination – 130 crop insect pollinated.
– Wild animal ecotourism $ 40 million.
– Food / pharmaceutical $ 36 million.
– Net carbon accumulation – $ 90 million.
– 5000 plant species used as food.
– Terminator gene technique.