“We do not inherit the environment from our fore fathers; we borrow it for future generations”. In 1972 representations of 113 world governments assembled is Stockholm to participate in UN conference on Human Environment. The Stockholm conference proclaimed that:
“The protection and improvement of human environment is a major issue which affects the well being of people and economic development throughout the world and it is the duty of all government and people to exert common effort for the preservation and improvement of human environment, for the benefit of all people and their posterity”.
India was the first country to impose a constitutional obligation on the state and citizens to protect and improve the environment as one of the primary duties. Article 48A of the Indian Constitution provides. “The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wild life of the country”.
Article 51A States:
“It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creative’s.”
The constitution of India has provisions to make environmental legislations. The Central, State and the concurrent lists of subject on which Parliament and State legislatures are empowered to legislate span, noise control, lead improvement, irrigation, town planning, slum clearance, housing scheme, pest control, smoke control, water pollution, forests, wild life recreation etc. Consequently laws have been enacted on some of the subjects such as.
1. The Factories Act 1948
2. The Insecticides Act 1968.
3. The water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974
4. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981
5. The forest (conservation) Act 1980
6. The Wild Life (Protection) Act 1986.
7. The Environment (Protection) Act 1986.
The Wild life (Protections) Act was formed 1972. The importance of wildlife resource has taken up steps by setting up an Indian Board of Wild life (1982), Creators of wildlife Parks and sanctuaries, enactment of an All India wildlife Protection Act (1982) becoming a party to the convention of International Trade in Endangered species of Fauna and Flora (CITES 1976), launching a national components of the UNESCO’s Man and the biosphere Programme (1971) and by starting conservation protects for individual endangered species like Hugely (1970), Lion (1972), Tiger (1973), Crocodiles (1974) and Brown-antlered Deer (1981). The wild life Act governs wildlife conservation and protection of endangered species.
The Environment Protection Act was passed by Parliament on 23 May 1986. The Act refers to the Stockholm conference in 1972 and is based on article 253 of the constitution.
Need to Disseminate Environmental Information for its Conservation
(i) Among students through Educations
(ii) Among General population through various media.
(iii) Among functionaries and opinion leaders involved with Environmental management.
(iv) Through NGOs
WCMC: World Conservation Monitoring Centre (Cambridge, UK)
WRI: World Resource Institute, Washington DC, USA
CI: Conservation International (Washington DC, USA)
Earth watches Watertown, USA
EDF: Environmental Defense Fund (New York, USA)
Greenpeace USA: Washington, DC, USA.
ICEL: International Council of Environmental Law (Bonn Germany)
IUCN: International Union for conservation of Natural and Natural Resources (Gland, Switzerland).
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme (New York, USA)
UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme (Nairoli, Kenya & Washington DC, USA) WCI: Wildlife Conservation International (Bronx USA)
WWF: Worldwide Fund for Nature (Also known as world Wildlife Fund).