The energy used in Giga (denoting factor of 109) Joules per capita in transportation is 2,103 in United States, 82 in Australia and 4 in Zimbabwe.
These statistics with regard to energy demand in transportation clearly show that energy used for transportation varies widely throughout the world. In less developed nations, energy consumption in transportation is very small. Per capita energy use for transportation is larger in developing and highly developed countries.
Rail, water, private automobiles and mixed bus service determine country’s energy use for transportation.
The places where public transport is efficient less private automobiles are used. This is so because automobiles require about four times more energy per passenger kilometer than bus or rail transport.
But in developed countries, the situation is different. The government policy in these countries is different. Government in these countries keeps the cost of energy low. Consequently, the automobile plays a dominant role, and public transport is primarily used only in metropolitan areas. Rail and bus transport are about twice as energy efficient as private automobiles. Air travel is relatively expensive in terms of energy.
Electrical Energy Demand in urban areas:
Electrical energy consumption in different regions of the world varies widely. The amount of electricity used by all the less developed nations, with over 75 percent of the world’s population, is only 66 percent of that used by the United States alone.
North America uses electrical energy twenty- five times greater than average per capita use of this energy in less developed countries. The electricity used in industries by developed countries in comparison to underdeveloped countries is also much more.
A brief review of the energy consumed in highly developed urban areas of USA etc. and underdeveloped countries like India etc. is given below:
In developed countries:
Industry (Mining, milling and smelting) 37% energy
Residential and commercial building 35% energy
Transportation (motor vehicles, trains, ships etc.) 28%
In India the situation is as follow: Agricultural 61.8% energy (coal, oil and electricity)
Transportation 83.9% energy (coal, oil and electricity) Industry 44.5% energy (coal, oil and electricity)