Short Essay on Demographic Transition Theory of Population

In the earlier theories of population it is mentioned that population increases fast but its rate of growth falls with the industrial development. Improved medical facilities also ensure low death rates.

The World's Population

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The historical sequence led to demographers to ask whether this process will continue with industrialization. The theory of demographic transition explains that a stage is arrived at where population tends to stabilized once a certain level of economic development is achieved. There are three stages of demographic transition. There are as follow:

Stage I:


In this stage both death rates and birth rates are high. Due to this reason population growth remain fairly stable. This stage is found in traditional societies.

Stage II:

In these stage birth rates remains high but death rates fall due to availability of medical facilities and better living standards. This stage is found in all developing societies. Population increases quite fast in this stage.

Stage III:


In this stage both death rates and birth rates starts declining and settle at a low level.

Stage IV:

Population growth rate gradually declines toward zero and remains fairly stable. This stage is found in advanced industrial societies.

The transition has been completed in Europe, Japan and North America. India is at the second stage of demographic transition. The problem of recognizing demographic theory of transition is that it is only a hypothesis and every society does not behave as explained in this theory. Japanese method of controlling population after world war second has been abortion. Secondly decline in birth rates is closely connected to socio-economic development, per capita income and educational level.

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