Thermal pollution has become an increasing and the most current pollution, owing to the increasing globalization everywhere.
Heat produced from industries is a major contribution to the pollution, much to the operation of the heavy industries, which produces high amount of heat energy. Thermal pollution can proceed via the different processes occurring at industrial level.
(i) Raw materials for productivity (organic and inorganic products)
(ii) Undergo different chemical reactions with several processes
(iii) Excess heat energy is produced as a waste product
(iv) Heat is released through into atmosphere (vapor) and reverie system (liquid).
(v) Increase of temperature of environmental system
Sources of thermal pollution
Major sources that lead to thermal pollution can be classified into the following categories:
(i) Power plants creating electricity from fossil fuel
(ii) Water as a cooling agent in industrial facilities
(iii) Deforestation of the shoreline
(iv) Soil erosion
Effects of thermal pollution
Water is used for cooling electric power plants. The cheapest and easiest method is to withdraw water from a nearby body of surface water, pass it through the plant and return the heated water to the same body of water.
Increase in water temperatures lower dissolved oxygen content by decreasing the solubility of oxygen in water. Warmer water also increases respiration rates of aquatic organisms (fish, amphibians and copepods) and as a result they consume oxygen faster, and it increases their susceptibility to disease, parasites, and toxic chemicals. Discharge of heated water into shallow water near the shore of a lake also may disrupt spawning and kill young fish.
i) Thermal pollution increases the metabolic rate of aquatic animals like enzyme activity, resulting more consumption of food in a shorter time period. This situation causing a sharp decrease in the population
ii) Changes in temperature also result in a migration of organisms to more suitable environment. This can be result in decrease in biodiversity.