Conservation of forests and protection of wildlife are essential for the protection of the environment. Following are the central Acts related to forests and wild life, which are operative in India.
Forest Conservation Act 1980:
Forest conservation Act was enacted in 1980. This Act is aimed to conserve all the types of Indian forests.
- To use the forests only for forestry purposes.
- Conservation of all types of forests including reserved forests, protected forests or any forested land.
- Stoppage of any illegal non-forest activity in forest area.
- The control of shifting cultivation and encroachments.
- To control grazing problems.
- Compensatory a forestation on the non-forest lands.
- To check deforestation in the critical area like catch men areas, steep slopes etc. to control soil erosion.
Forest Conservation Act was amended in 1992. The amended act states:
- To allow non-forestry activities like setting of transmission lines, drilling, hydro-electric projects etc. with the prior approval of central government.
- Cultivation of cash crops like tea coffee, rubbers etc. are permitted in the reserved forests.
- Approval of central government must for the cultivation of fruit trees oil yielding or medicinal plants.
- To allow tassel cultivation (a type of silk producing insect) to
- Discourage mono culture practices in the forests.
- Mincing and removal of stones, Bajer etc. from the river beds
considered as non-forestry activities.
Wild life Protection Act 1972:
The Wildlife Protection Act 1972 states;
- Hunting and trade of products of useful animals should be regulated.
- Trade in rare and endangered species should be regulated.
- National parks and sanctuaries should be established
- Appointments of Wildlife Advisory Board and wildlife wardens should be made.
- Captive breeding programmes of endangered species should be started.
- Prohibits the hunting of animals listed in schedule 1, II, 111 & IV. This Act was amended in 1994 after which specified plants were brought under the protection umbrella of Act and central zone authority was established to regulate the management and functioning of zoos. It also provided legal measures for the protection of wildlife. Undenthy Act several conservation projects like Lion Project (1972), Tiger Project (1973), Rhino Project (1987), Elephant Project etc. were started for specific endangered animals species. National wild life action Ian was started in 1984 as a following of this Act. Orissa Forest Act 1972 :
The objective of this Act is to consolidate and amend all the earlier laws related to the protection and management of forests.