The term population explosion means the rapid increase in population which Outstrip the growth of national income and retards the per capita income. It hampers the saving and invests. The economy remains in the grip of vicious circle of poverty. The consumption and nutrition standard of the population are low. They suffer from poor health and low productivity.
Causes of Population Explosion
High Birth Rate:
Some of the socio-cultural causes responsible for high birth rate in India. Marriage is also a religious duty and practice of early marriage system is still now in India. More than 80% of girls are married during the fertile period of 15 to 20 years of age and give birth a number of children.
Some people in India prefer to have more than one wife and such polygamy system give birth more children.
Preference for a Male Child:
Every family in India prefers a male child. There are some religious rites which can be preferred by a male child. So the parents in spite of number of girl child they wait for a male child.
The widow marriage system in modern society helps in the growth of population.
40% of the populations in India are below the poverty line and they consider children as their asset and they earn at a very low age and bring wages. It helps in the rapid population growth.
In India 39.4 percent of women is literate and 63.9 percent of men are literate. So illiteracy combined with poverty, ignorance and superstitions, the people do not know the use of contraceptives help in the rapid population growth.
Lack of birth control devices:
The birth control devices are not sufficient and not given in the right time causes of decline death rate-
Control of Famine’s and Epidemics:
Adequate transport and communicational facilities are made. There is development in medicines and surgical operation. So the epidemics like plague, cholera, malaria, influenza, has been checked and it checked the death rate.
Availability of Medical Facilities:
Medical facilities and public health services help in the decline of death rate. Drinking water supply and drainage facilities have control epidemics. In the rural areas the medical clinics, hospitals have opened and medical facilities are provided to all which reduced death rates.
Maternal and Child Health Service:
Care has taken for the health of the pregnant and nursing mothers, new born babies, and arrangement have been made for the safe delivery of the babies and so death rate has reduced.
The death rate of pregnant women and new born babies has declined.
Remedial measures to check the population:
The marriage age has increased for boys and girls by law. Early marriage system has abolished. There is encouragement for family planning programmes and use of contraceptives. Birth rate has checked by different methods. There is spread of education emphasis for one or two children, improvement of the status of women, population awareness programmes and adequate supply of oral contraceptives and encouragement for sterilization operation has helped in the reduction of population growth.