What are the causes of water pollution?

Causes of Water Pollution: The main causes of water pollution may be due to –

  • Biotic community dumping fertilizers or wastes in the water reservoirs; as a result Water gets polluted.
  • The poisonous chemicals when mixed with water kill the biotic community of the water reservoir. For this water gets polluted.
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Sources of Water Pollution:

The principal sources of water pollution are as follows –



When the dirty water of latrine, bathroom and household wastes ‘are dumped into water reservoirs, the water pollution increases.

Industrial Pollution:

Industrial Pollutants are often passed into water reservoirs. The pollutants of industries such as sugar, paper, tannery, cloths, jute, steel, fertilizer and the water get polluted. The water becomes unfit for industrial, recreational and other uses. The industrial pollutants contains number of toxic chemicals as follows –

  • Mercury: It passes into food chain poisonous fish and other fauna that produces a crippling deformity inhuman beings called mina mate disease.
  • Leas and Cadmiun: It causes renal damage, hypertension, anaemia, damage to placenta and tastes.
  • Acid, alkali, poisons and other liquid pollutants: They kill fishers and other aquatic life besides being toxic to human beings.

Thermal Pollution:


It is caused by addition of hot pollutants and hot water into water causes high temperature reduces oxygen content of water.

Pollution due to Petroleum:

Oil sticks or oil spils and discharge of industries present oxygenation of water, inhabit plant growth and kill animal life.

Agriculture Pollution:


Fertilizer and pesticides have been largely used for increasing production and controlling pests respectively.

Measures to undertaken for controlling water pollution is as follows:

  • Dumping of water in water reservoirs should be stopped and the water reservoirs should be kept clean from wastes.
  • The water drains should be treated before its leading into water reservoir.
  • The bathing of farm animals and washing of clothes in the water of pond, tank etc. should be stooped.
  • The polluted water of different industries should be led into water reservoirs after proper purification.
  • The recycling of water is one of the best methods of controlling water pollution as follows-
  • All organic wastes of towns and cities can be used to prepare compost and such compost will be utilized in the high yield of crops.
  • Cow dung and other organic wastes of farm houses and villagers should be used to generate biogas and to prepare manure.
  • Agriculture wastes like paddy husks, straw etc. are profitably used to prepare livestock feed hard board and paper.
  • Wastes paper and plastics can be recycled to minimize their harmful effects.
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