Acid rain can affect drastically the ecosystem, aquatic and terrestrial biota. It can also affect the buildings and monuments. Finally, it affects the human beings.
Many nations are affected by acid rain. Nations in Central and Eastern Europe, Eastern North America, Scandinavia face very serious problems. In Africa, burning of grasslands creates acid rain.
1. Reduced crop yields and fish catches and damaged forests are the common adverse effects observed. The drinking water and fresh water lakes are poisoned.
2. Acid rain damages the buildings and marble monuments. Stone statutes, Taj Mahal (Agra) have been partially eroded by acid rain. Taj is facing a problem of future demolition. Victoria memorial at Calcutta is also facing the same fate. Stone monuments are degraded/eroded by acid rain. Acid rain damages marble, limestone, slate and mortar etc.
3. Acid rain destroys living organisms. Aquatic pi ants and animals die because of the acid. Acid rain affects human nervous system health hazard and finally after prolonged exposure kills human beings.
4. Acid rain kills fish in ponds, lakes and rivers and disturbs food chain, food web and energy flow in the ecosystem.
5. Producers die due to acids present in the rain water in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Production decreases significantly.
6. Acidic water can dissolve many of the metals and heavy metals and carry them to water bodies. These chemicals are lethal chemicals or killer chemicals. They can kill all living organisms of the ecosystems.
7. Bacteria, blue-green algae, planktons, aquatic plants and animals die in water bodies.
8. Acid rain damages the leaves of the plants. Because of heavy acid rain, forests become thin and finally forests become a barren land due to hyper acidic nature of soil caused due to acid rain. Acid rain reduces the growth of the plants.
9. Many of the nutrients are washed out by acid rain from soil. These nutrients easily leach out from the soil with acid rain run-off water.
10. Acid rain affected plants and animals are readily attacked by the pathogens and destroy them.
11. In acid medium, plants absorb many of the meals from the soil and bioconcentrate them leading to biomagnifications in the food, chain, which becomes a potential danger for destruction of food chain, tropic levels and finally the ecosystem.
12. Many of the diseases are spread by acid rain water, brought about by bacteria and pathogens.