The main factors that affect distribution of population are natural resources, climatic conditions, soils, cultural factors, age of human settlement, industrial development and means of transport and communication. The factors affecting distribution of population are described below one by one in a nutshell manner.
(i) Natural Resources:
The regions having rich wealth of natural resources like coal, water, minerals and forest wealth favour the growth of population. These resources help in the development of trade, commerce and industry.
This promote cluster of population and thereby increase density of population. This is the reason that North-West Europe and in India, Bihar and West Bengal have high density of population.
(ii) Climatic Conditions:
Climate also influences growth of population. Moderate climate leads to the growth of population because it is pleasant and refreshing. In these regions density of population is high. On the other hand people do not like to live in too hot and too cold climates.
This is the reason that Canada is sparsely populated. Average density of population in Canada is 2.5 per sq. km. metre. Similarly in India, Rajasthan, Deccan Hills, plateaus and the Himalayan regions are sparsely (less population per sq. m.) populated.
Rich and fertile soil always help in the growth and development of agricultural activities with substantially high yield per hectare. This is so because fertile lands produce a variety of crops to support dense population so one can see that East and South Asian Region and northern plains of India are densely populated.
(iv) Means of Transport and Communication:
Highly developed means of air, surface and water add to the density of population in a particular region because there the people can manage and carry on agricultural, commercial as well as industrial activities very safely and swiftly.
(v) Age of human settlement:
Australia and USA have low density of population. Human habitation (or living) in these countries is of recent origin compared to river valley of the ancient period. Besides this, these countries also practice strict immigration procedures. This system keeps population density far below the total potential.
(vi) Cultural factors:
Cultural factors like the modes of life of the people also affect the density of population. The density of population is low in equatorial forests and deserts because nomadic tribes live in regions are often found engaged in food gathering to support their families. The regions inhabited by pastoral nomads also have low density because they migrate with their animals in search of pastures.
(i) Asia is the most populous continent.
(ii) The average number of person living per unit of land area is called density of population.
(iii) Regions of low density of population are:
(a) Polar Regions (b) Tropical deserts and (c) Equatorial regions