Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a part of the decision making. It is taken into account in planning designing, authorization and implementation of all relevant types of actions of a development project. Development project is taken up to net economic and social benefits to the people.
Environmental impact assessment is a part of the decision making process. It must be carried out before the final decision is taken about any project. It is conceived by many project proponents as only regulatory requirements and a post decision activity. ELA should be carried out by a non-interest party in order to prepare a fair and unbiased report. Project planning and design is one of the early steps taken by the project developer to implement a project. The EIA process should start at this early stage and should be integrated with all the ongoing design and planning works of the project till its execution.
The following should be taken into with design and planning stage: (1) Review the alternative ways of meeting the overall objective of the project including zero option; not taking up the project at all. (2) Examine the alternative location for the proposed project i.e. mining project. (3) Study the alternative process designs, site layouts and other facilities of proper project.
The EIA study is done along with the studies of technical and financial in order to arrive at optional environmental alternatives. Most of the alternative can be eliminated by a rapid environmental screening.