Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to evaluate the environmental consequences of a product or an activity wholly across its entire life. The evaluation is based on the resource, usage and release to the environment all the stages involved in making and using a product. In this estimate both the manufacture and the consumers are realizing the need to look at the cradle to grave environmental consequences of the product they make or use. The cradle to grave principle means that all aspects of environmental impacts have to be considered from the raw materials to the final disposal of used products. However, life cycle assessment is a process-
- To evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product. The evaluation is based on identification, quantifying energy, materials used and wastes eliminated to the environment.
- To estimate or assess the impact of these energy and use of materials and releases on the environment.
- To identify and evaluate the scope to effect the environmental improvements.
- To initiate with goal, definition and scope.
- Inventory analysis and to identify the scopes to decrease environmental releases energy and raw material usage.
- Impact analysis in relation to resource degradation pollution etc.
- Development analysis aiming at sustainable development for wider acceptance among all sections of people.
There are mainly three approaches as follows-
- Command Control: In this approach the enforcement is done by punishment according to the legal means. Violators are punished by cancellation of licenses, ordering closure or by initiating criminal proceedings. The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, the Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act and the Environment Protection Act are based on the command control principle. In this approach the violators have the tendency to cheat which leads to corruption.
- Market based Approach: This approach is mainly meant to control the industrial pollution. Various incentives and disincentives of the Govt., make the disincentives of the Govt., make the production of eco-friendly products by cleaner technologies. These are-more profitable and economically important. The Govt. provides the incentives to fly ash and brick manufacturers. The incentives are in the form of free land, power and subsidy, reducing water tax for less water consumption by industries, providing tax relief to industries procuring pollution control equipments etc. The disincentives are many end one of them is levy of more green tax for more pollution;
- Creating Environmental Awareness: No method of implementation will be successful if the state holders of a project are not aware of the importance of the environmental protection. So creation of environment awareness among all the sections of the people is the first and foremost duty. For proper environmental management the society should be aware of the environmental pollution and its protection. Introduction of
Environmental subjects to all levels of education extensive media coverage of environmental matters, orientation of programmes for policy makers are some of the methods by which awareness can be created. The opinion should be taken about it. The women, children should be participated in this programme.