Success of democracy depends upon the people. Individual citizens must understand their duties and rights. They should honor the rights of others and perform their duties earnestly and honestly.
Without self-discipline, there can be no peace in society. It is necessary that our people should be broad-minded. They should be ready to receive new ideas and thoughts. They should be able to think clearly and impartially on various problems. This is necessary, because in a democracy individuals have to form their own judgment. There is no supreme authority like a dictator to the basis of co-operation. So the competitive spirit is to be replaced by the co-operative one. It means that the individual is to be developed for the benefit of society and not vice-versa. Our education must have this aim as its ideal. In short, the first object of education in a democratic country is, therefore, the full, all-round development of the personality of the individual.
The world has shrunk due to the inventions of science. We cannot afford to be narrowly patriotic. We are now the citizens of the world. We may be proud of the greatness of our country. We may sing the song of her glories. But we must also be ready to admit her weaknesses. The character of the people should be so developed that they not only become good patriots, but also have the sense of world citizenship. The development of character for national and international good is another important aim of education. Education should inculcate the lesson not only of national integration but also of international integration and unity. Our country is one and it must remain united. But the oneness or unity of the world is equally important. This can be achieved only through education.
It is matter of common experience that our workers waste their time while they are on duty. When they are left alone, without any supervisor, either they gossip or smoke or sit idle. So is the case with the office clerks and other educated workers. This mentality must be changed. If we begin to train our children in schools and colleges through different arts and crafts, they will learn to work in a responsible way from the very beginning. Their education must not be purely bookish and theoretical, as such education produces only white collared clerks. They should be taught to do productive work. So the improvement of vocational efficiency is another important aim of education.
Man cannot work for all the twenty-four hours. He must get leisure. The way in which this leisure is utilized is an important factor which affects the personality of the individual. Through the utilization of this leisure in a healthy way, cultural progress becomes possible. But if a man is not educated properly in his childhood, he cannot rightly utilize his leisure. It is through different co-curricular activities that the interests an tastes of students are developed and good habits are formed. Therefore the aim of education should be to cultivate among students such interests, as they may follow in their leisure time and thus contribute, in later life, to our cultural heritage.
It is said that leaders are born and not made. But it is also true that good education does prepare the students for the heavy responsibilities of the future. Dr. Radha Krishnan once said that the aim of education is ‘to turn out leaders of men’ and the universities, ‘should inspire young men and women with noble ideas’. Such an education is al the more necessary in a democratic society.
It is the young men who are to occupy the place of responsibility in different walks of life. Education should develop in them a sense of responsibility. They should develop confidence and self-reliance. They must learn to shun violence in every form. Public property must not be damaged or destroyed. It is unpatriotic. A sense of selfless service is very important for those who occupy high positions. Originality and initiative are some other qualities which make a man successful. Our education must develop these qualities in our young men, so that they may be ready to meet the call of the nation.