India lives in her villages. The main occupation of the villagers is agriculture. Our agriculture is in a backward condition. It is a matter of great concern, not only for teeming millions, but also for the Government. Agriculture is of supreme importance for the progress of the country. Let us here briefly examine the causes of its backwardness, and suggest ways and means for improvement.
The pressure on land has increased very much. More and more land is being brought under plough, but even then there is shortage of essential commodities. Another reason is the lack of irrigation facilities. The monsoon type climate of the country makes agriculture a gamble of rains. if the monsoons fails, crops fail. If the rains come in time and in proper quantity, the hopes of the farmers are brightened.
Furthermore, the land holding are very small and scattered. This makes any improvement impossible. Under such conditions agriculture cannot be modernized. Scientific methods cannot be used. The poverty of farmers also makes it difficult to make improvements. Seeds of improved quality, chemical fertilizers and timely help in the form of credit are not available to the Indian farmer. These are the causes which make agriculture backward in India.
Since the attainment of independence, the Government has given top priority to agriculture. multipurpose river projects have been constructed in all the sates. These projects have made irrigation facilities available to the farmer. Where canal irrigation is not possible, more tube wells are being bored. Government has already established a number of big factories for the production of chemical fertilizers. More such factories will be established in the near future. They will solve the manure problem. Zamindari and Jagirdari have been abolished. This has made the tiller of the soil the real master of his hand. Consolidation of landholdings has been completed.
Though agricultural production has been slow. He is ignorant and satisfactory. Progress in agriculture has been slow. He is ignorant and conservative. The illiteracy of the farmer is one of them. The reasons for this are obvious. he carries on agriculture in his own way. He does not like to give up traditional methods. Moreover, the officers entrusted with this work have not taken due interest in their work. They have not implemented the Government schemes whole-heartedly. The Government alone cannot solve every problem. The rural folk have been lacking in co-operation.
Better facilities should be provided for the education for the peasants. More stress should be placed on agricultural education. Agriculture should be organized on a co-operative basis. The difficulties which come in the way must be removed. Only hard working and honest men should be made responsible for executive Government-schemes. It is very essential. These suggestions, if put into practice, are sure to prove very useful.
We are happy to note that top priority is being given to the improvement of agriculture by the Government.