There are many bases for the formation of political parties. Many people form a political party on the basis of religion.
Their aim is to protect the interests of their followers. For instance, Muslim League, Akali Dal, Hindu Mahasabha, etc., were formed on this basis.
In European countries Catholic parties have been formed on this very basis.
The second basis for the formation of the parties is economic.
For example, there are many classes in the society, e.g., of capitalists, labourers, businessmen and services. Conservative parties protect the interest of capitalists, while communist and socialist parties protect the interests of the labourers.
The third basis for the formation of a political party is racial. For example, in India, there is All India Scheduled Castes’ Federation. In Germany, Nazi party was also formed on this basis and its programme was to drive out the Jews from the country.
In South Africa, the policy of apartheid has been adopted and the white people have made different laws for the protection of their interests. This was also the position in Southern Rhodesia. The white position people there hated the black people and both had formed separate organisations for the protection of their interests.
Fourthly, certain parties are formed on political basis, like Indian National Congress in India. In the beginning its aim was to protect the interests of the people of India, but later it fought for the freedom of the country.
Fifthly, sometimes the basis for the formation of political parties is psychological or natural difference. Many people consider the old traditions of the society as ideal and they want to review them. We call such persons reactionaries.
There are certain people like the capitalists who do not want any change m the present set-up of the society We call them conservatives.There are certain people who want to bring m social reform in the society by removing social evils. But for this purpose they want to use only constitutional methods.
We can them liberals.There are certain people who hate the entire system of the society and they want to bring in radical changes in it by using revolutionary methods. We call them radicals or extremists.