Material World is true. This philosophy considers materialistic world as true which we see directly. Moor has said, “Existence perceives.” This world is a combination of matters. Matter is true. It is real. Therefore this world is also real. Spiritual world is thought-oriented, thus it is unreal. Soul and God is a figment of imagination and mind is just a thing of the world.
Man is Supreme. Realism considers man as the supreme creature of the material world. The ultimate aim of life is to live a peaceful life after acquiring the knowledge of things.
Universe is not external. Realists believe that universe is not external. There is law that governs the universe and the law is supreme since it is through this law and order that cohesion prevails.
Emphasis on Present Life Realism lays emphasis on the present life and behavioral (practical) aspect of man. It opposes the ideals. It has no concern with the ideals and rules of past and future.
Senses are the Gateway of Knowledge. According to realism whatever sensation we get while coming in contact with objects through our senses is the only reality. This philosophy considers senses as the gateway of knowledge we receive” knowledge by seeing, smelling, touching and tasting this knowledge is real.
Realism and Philosophy
This world is made of many materials. Material world is true and real. It is directly visible to us. Whatever is beyond this is unreal. Soul and God is a figment of imagination. Matter is dynamic. Mind is matter-oriented.
Realism believes in the material-oriented world. Realists search for beauty in the natural beauty. They have no faith on eternal values, because they consider spiritual world as a figment of imagination.
They believe that beauty is the reflection of nature. They stress on the practical aspect of the present. Man is the maker of his destiny. It does not believe in the pre-determined values.
Realists consider senses as the gateway of knowledge. This material world is real because it has existence, this existence is felt through senses. Therefore, it is real and true.
Realism and Aims of Education
Preparation for Real Life
The aim of realistic education should be such that the child is able to solve his problems of life successfully and lead a happy life. Realists believe in the reality of knowledge of external material world gained through senses. They want to prepare the child for the real life of material world. Spencer recommends, ‘complete living’ as the aim of education.
Training of Senses
The aim of education is to develop and train the senses of the child through varied experiences. Realists believe that unless the senses of the child are developed fully well, he will not be able to have full knowledge about the external world.
Physical and Mental Development
Aim of education is to develop the physical and mental powers of the child so that with the help of his developed intelligence, discrimination and judgment, he is able to solve all the problems of life successfully
To realism, a child is related both to the external nature and social environment. The aim of education is to provide the child full knowledge of both the society and the external nature so that he is able to keep a balance between the two. Aim of education is the social development of the child.
Realism considers the ‘development of scientific attitude’ as an important aim of education. It aims at the development of the habit of reasoning, independent thinking and judgment among the pupils.
Realism lays emphasis on material comforts and facilities. Attainment of material happiness is possible through a vocation. Therefore, we must make a child self-sufficient by developing vocational skills in him so that he may live a happy life by fulfilling his needs.
Realism and Curriculum
Curriculum is a means of realizing the aims of education. Realists insisted that only those subjects and activities should be included in the curriculum which prepares children for actual day to day living.
Accordingly, considering the real situations, conditions and circumstances of the present day life of human beings, realists emphasized to give prime place to Nature, Science and vocational subjects whereas secondary place to Arts, Literature and Languages.
Knowledge must be given through the medium of mother tongue so that the child is in a position to solve his daily life problems and make his life happy. Hence the essential subjects in the curriculum should be language and vocational subjects.
Realism and Teacher
Realism recognizes the teacher but does not attach much importance to the personality of the teacher like Idealism. The teacher is supposed to put the facts as they are in their real form. He should present the knowledge in an effective and intelligible way.
He should create opportunities for observation and experimentation. He should be well versed in the psychological methods, techniques and skills of teaching. Realists insist upon the training of teachers before they engage themselves in the teaching work in an effective way.
Realism and Methods of Teaching
The realism is opposed to the traditional methods of teaching. Realists stress the use of objective and scientific techniques. They support inductive-deductive experimentation, tours, self-experiences, use of audio-visual aids and other methods of teaching.
In their opinion objects should be first shown and allowed to be handled if need be and then only they are interpreted and explained to the child. This encouraged the use of audio-visual aids in education. They are the supporters of correlation method.
Realism and Discipline
Realism emphasizes moral and religious education of the child. For this type of education, discipline is essential condition. Realists advocate self-discipline to effect smooth adjustment of the child with external environment with the teacher only inspiring and encouraging sympathetically.
To Comenius the school should be like the lap of mother full of affection, love and sympathy. They advocate a synthetic form of impressionistic and emancipator discipline.
Realism and School
According to Comenius, ‘schools are true foregoing places of men’. Realists emphasize the importance of school and class teaching. They regard school as a mirror of society reflecting its true state of affairs. School should also be well furnished and equipped with all the necessary aids and devices for effective observation and experimentations by children.
According to them, the school is an agency which meets the needs to the child and the demand of society. It is school only which provides for the fullest development of the child according to his nature and needs. Not only this, school is the only agency to provide vocational education to prepare the child for some livelihood.
Contribution of realism in education
Vocational efficiency is an important aim of realism which is relevant even to-day.
Realism gave a comprehensive curriculum and Cached great importance to science which is appropriate in the present age.
Realists emphasized inductive method. They advocate the principle of correlation between various subjects.
They advocate a synthetic form of impressionistic and emancipator forms of discipline.
They give important place to student.
They accept the necessity of school.
Teacher should have full knowledge of the content and the needs of children.