The Indian schools of philosophy are:
1. Vedas (Vedanta).
2. The Gita.
The vedanta philosophy
In the beginning, we had Vedas. The word “Veda” means knowledge. The Vedas are four-Rig, Yajur, Sam and Atharva. They contain hymns or Mantras.
These ‘Mantras’ stand explained in Upanishads. These Upanishads are known also as ‘Vedanta’ as it comes at the end of Vedas.
The Upanishads have two terms for ultimate reality-The Brahman and the Atman. The “Brahman” is the ultimate source of the outer world and the ‘Atman’ the inner self of man. Both are complimentary. The subjective side is ‘Atman’ and the objective side is “Brahman”.
The “Brahman” is the supreme reality.
The ‘Brahman’ is the Absolute. It is called Sanchi-Ananda- pure existence, pure knowledge and pure bliss-all rolled into one. It is also Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These are the three values which Indians cherish the most and beauty being the highest value.
The Implications in Education
1. Perfect the Individual
It is said that the spiritual personality of the individual is the central core of the Vedanta philosophy. We must thus repeat the individual personality.
2. Teacher-Taught Relations
These relations are bound to be excellent if a student is to learn anything from a teacher.
3. The knowledge is to be acquired through detachment. The methods are Hearing, Reflection and Meditation.
4. The four ideals of life or the core of our culture are ‘Artha’, ‘Kama’, ‘Dharma’ and ‘Moksha’. These are stressed by Vedanta’s.
Holy Gita is also called the ‘Gospel of Humanity’. It is also called the Song Celestial. Its teachings are well known. Duty Do your Duty. Do not expect any fruit. Duty itself is a reward in itself. It is Action which is important and only action will take you to salvation. And Fight the evil. ‘Karma’ is supreme.
Implications in Education
1. Act. Act now. Act boldly: Do not be despondent. Education should teach us to be manly.
2. Be of service to others.
3. Do your duty fearlessly and with devotion.
4. Renounce. Your only need should be ‘Being needless’. No greed. But at the same time renunciation should not be of extreme type. And do not be over attached to the world.
“‘The Gita’s message is for all men and women living in world doing all kinds of work. It shows a way of life by which people shouldering responsibilities can achieve all round success and happiness.
The ideal of Gita is not only to produce great seers and sages but to produce also great warriors, statesmen, industrialists, artists and scientists. Anybody in any station-in-life can lift himself through his own self-effort.”
Founder is Bhagwan Mahavir. Jainism is from “Jiva” which means to conquer.
It refuses to believe in God. It encourages a pessimistic outlook on life.
1. Two aspects. There are two aspects of universe-Jiva and Ajiva-The conscious and the unconscious spirit. Jiva is expansion and contraction. It is life. Ajiva is divided into Kala, Akasha, Dharma, Adhara and Pudgala (motto).
2. Ignorance means slavery. Right knowledge is the act of liberation. Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct are the three pillars of Jainism.
3. Jainism believes in strict discipline. There are five vows- the last two are not for laymen; Ahimsa, Astega, Non-stealing, Celibacy and Renunciation.
4. Jainism is a religion of self-help. Jainism denies God. But every liberated soul is God.
5. Development of personality-individual and social is its aims
The implications in education are:
1. One of the aims of education is obviously development of personality. The many sides of personality should be taken care of.
2. Right conduct should be always stressed.
3. Curriculum was based on three Ratnas-right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.
4. Memory is stressed.
Implications in Education
1. You can achieve peace here and now. Teachers need not despair.
2. Buddhistic philosophy is pragamtic. Everything is in a state of flux. Nothing is permanent. Change is the rule of universe.
3. It is democratic. It encourages enquiry.
4. It believes in the teaching and learning of manual skills.
5. It is ethical. Our education should be ethic based.