Essay on Proofs for God’s Existence!
Though Samkara dins not accept God as the ultimate reality, yet, as a systematic philosopher, he gives proofs for His existence. These arguments are as follows:
1. Cosmological Argument:
The varied and systematic world of multiple names and forms cannot be (lie creation of some material Prakriti as in Samkhya philosophy or that of the movements of atoms as in Vaishesika philosophy.
In the Tarkapada of his famous commentary on The Brahma Sutra of Badaravana, Samkara has elaborately criticized the theories of creation in Samkhya and Vaishesika philosophies. It goes without saying that the traditional arguments against the theory of creation do not apply to Samkara’s views.
2. Ideological Argument:
In the creation of the world, there appears a system, an order and a harmony. The structure of various animals and above all of the human beings puzzles even the greatest intellectuals. Even the best artist finds satisfaction in attempting to copy Nature. How can this beautiful world then be the work of some unconscious material Prakriti.
Only a conscious God can be the creator of the individuals. Taking seeds of names and forms of the Maya, He creates a systematic world. The system explicit everywhere in the creation testifies to the purpose of the creator. This is the Ideological argument lo prove the existence of a conscious God as creator of the world.
3. Moral Argument:
One finds a wide difference in the status of different individuals in the world. One enjoys pleasure while another suffers pain. One is born with a silver spoon in his mouth while another cannot even make both ends meet, even alter much labour. II the world is a moral order, why is there all this injustice?
If the creator and sustainer of the world is not a wicked spirit, why is there so much pain, misery and sin? It is to give a moral interpretation of this inequality that Kant has taken resort to the postulate of God. Samkara brings here the doctrine of Karmas. According to him, all this inequality in the lots of the individuals is due to their past karmas.
Only the doctrine of karma can satisfactorily give a moral interpretation to such wide differences found among the individual beings. According to Mimamsa philosophy, this karma is an imperceptible power, named Apoorva, which creates both the good and the bad consequences. But if this Apoorva is itself an unconscious power, how can it create the good and bad consequences?
It can be done only by awards and punishments to the individuals according to their karmas. God is the controller of all actions. This is the moral argument to prove the existence of a conscious God who systematically rewards and punishes different individuals according to their deeds or karmas.
This moral arguments has also been presented in a somewhat different form. It is the scriptures which formulate the moral principles, but the validity of scriptures is based upon their creator, God. It is only because they are the commands of God, that the principles laid down in scriptures are categorical. It is He who decides about moral principles, since He is the ultimate end of all. The actions approved by Him are right. Hence, the existence of God is proved as the ultimate end and the source of the moral principles.
Both God and individuals are mere worldly realities. Both are the reflections of Brahman. Both possess pure consciousness. Both are Brahman itself. From the transcendental standpoint, both are the same, but from the practical standpoint, there is a whole world of difference between them’. ‘The jivas have also been held as parts of God though God is without parts. The knowledge, power and existence of the jivas is limited, while God is omniscient, omnipresent, infinite, all bliss and perfect.
The jivas are related to merits and demerits. God is beyond both and controls them. The jivas make efforts for liberation. God is eternally liberated and helps the jivas in their efforts. The jivas are active, but it is God who gives them initiative. The jivas are enjoyers, but God is free. Thus, the jivas are worldly, while God is beyond the world. But ultimately, all this dualism disappears by the realisation of Brahman. According to Ramanuja, however, this dualism is not due to ignorance. It is eternal. Between jiva and God there is the relation of part and whole, of the controlled and the controller, of modes and substance.