Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world and its forests, fisheries, habitats and biological diversity.
Secondary focus is on material conservation and energy conservation which are seen as important to protect the natural world.
The conservation may cover the concepts such as cultural diversity, genetic diversity and the concept of movement’s environment conservations, seed bank (preservation of seeds). Biological conservation as being a philosophy of managing the environment in a manner that does not despoil, exhaust or extinguish.
The recent movement in conservation can be considered a resistance to commercialism and globalization.
There are two types of conservation of biodiversity:
1. ex situ conservation
2. In situ conservation
1. ex situ Conservation:
“Off site conservation”. It is the process of protecting endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans.
While the ex site conservation is comprised of some of the oldest and best known conservation methods known to man it also involves newer, sometimes controversial laboratory methods.
Example – 1500 botanical garden and research center are working to preserve biodiversity, other ex site methods are regional gene bank, tissue culture and reintroductions while for animals inbreeding, Demographic genetic variability with ethical consideration and gene banking (freezing of sperms, test tube, artificial fusion).
2. In situ Conservation:
“On site conservation”. Protection of endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitats either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself or by defending the species from predators conservation of habitat as protected area (national park, Restricted / Planned use of biodiversity, species approach as Sanctuaries and rare breed preservation. In India 448 Sanctuaries, 85 National park and 14 biological regions have been recorded.