The quantity of solid wastes generation in big cities of India is almost 400-600 gm per person and is increasing day by day at an enhanced rate.
Again, due to high illiteracy, indiscipline and carelessness in our basic character, we prefer to throw the waste in the street rather than collection and proper disposal.
We never think about the consequences of such things at all. These wastes, either alone or under prevalent conditions, can combine with other secondary wastes creating high degree of health hazardous problem. As far as municipal solid waste is concerned, the vegetables, leaves and fish remnants are the major constituents.
The biological decomposition of vegetable wastes, fish remnants and the dead animals release hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and many other organic-sulphur gases, creating objectionable odour.
The garbage is an ideal place for flies, mosquitoes, insects, rats and other rodents to live in. They live, grow and reproduce in garbage. Mosquitoes bring diseases like malaria, filaria and enchephalities.
The flies carry contaminated food from the garbage and finally to human beings, causing dysentery, diarrhea, etc. Rats cause plague, leptospirosis, tularemia, trichinosis, and many more diseases.
The open burning or fire generation due to organic decomposition may lead fire to continue for a longer period and may cause high degree of water and air pollution due to the release of leachable toxic materials into water, exerting oxygen demand and other pathogen along with noxius gases, creating health hazard problem. Again the workers handling the garbage are directly affected with roundworm and whip-worm.
Hence, disposal of solid wastes needs special attention. It is only through scientific, disciplined and effective solid waste management, that the four problems can be minimized or abated to the maximum possible extent.