Food is a mixture of many different chemical components.
The study of food science involves an understanding of the changes that occur in these components during food preparation whether natural or induced by handling procedures.
Many physical and chemical reactions occur during food preparation. These reactions may be a result of the interaction between components, with the medium of cooking, and the environmental conditions like heat, cold, light and air to which they are subjected during cooking.
Study of food science also includes understanding the nutritive value of different foods and methods of preserving them during cooking.
This information provides a foundation of theory and method on which to build the study of food preparation.
Food additive is defined as non-nutritive substances added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities to improve its appearance, flavour, texture or storage properties.
Fermented food is produced by the action of bacteria or moulds which act on carbohydrates and proteins present in foods and hydrolyze them to simpler products yielding predigested foods.
Food Technology is the application of principles of food science and engineering to the processing and preserving large quantities of food.
Food fortification is defined as the process whereby nutrients are added to foods in relatively small quantities to maintain or improve the quality of the diet of a group, a community or a population (WHO).
Non-nutrients of foods are organic compounds having no nutritional function. They may be toxins or beneficial substances like fibre or compounds that may improve palatability or pharmacological importance.
Functional food provides health benefits beyond the nutrient contribution when they are eaten on a regular basis in adequate amounts.
Functional food has positive effect on a person’s health, physical performance or state of mind.
Phytochemicals are non-nutrient compounds found in plant derived food that have biological activity in the body.
Food safety and regulation is related to food sanitation in public health and rules and regulations governing it.
Antioxidants include compounds that protect biological systems against the potentially harmful effects of processes or reactions that can cause excessive oxidations (USDA).