Short Essay on Pollination and Its Types

Pollination :

The transference of the pollen from the anther to the receptive stigma, whether of the same flower or of a different flower, is known as pollination.

As the pollen is not capable of locomotion, this pro­cess either involves some agent for this transference or the anther must be placed in the flower right above the stigma so that pollens may drop directly on the stigma.

If the stigma is pollinated by the pollen of the same flower, it is a case of self-pollination. When the pollen of one flower pollinates the stigma of a different flower but on the same plant, it is called geitonogamy.

Pollen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Pollination Agents:

Pollination may be affected by different agencies such as wind, water, animals and insects. Accordingly, the types of pollination are:

(i) Anemophily (Wind-Pollinated):


These flow­ers are inconspicuous and not showy. They are devoid of scent, nectar, etc. They produce a very large quantity of dusty pollens which are light in weight so that they may be car­ried to longer distances to reach the stigma.

(ii) Hydrophily (Water-Pollinated):

The water plants generally have their flowers above water and are adapted for wind or insect pol­lination, e.g., lotus. In case of the plants sub­merged under water, the flowers are small and inconspicuous. The male flowers are small and numerous, they become detached from the plant and float about on the water and approach female flowers. Some of the pol­len grains are thus transferred to the stigma.

(iii) Zoophily (Animal-Pollinated):


These flow­ers are pollinated by birds, bats and other animals and may be of the following types:

(a) Ornithophily (Bird-Pollinated):

Bird- pollinated flowers are not many in number. Tiny birds like humming-birds and honey-thrushers feed on the nectar of flowers like Bignonia and thereby pollinate them.

(b) Chiropteriphily (Bat-Pollinated):

Bauhinia of Java, Epertua and a few other trees are known to be pollinated by bats.

(c) Malacophily (Slug and Snail-Polli­nated):

Snails and slugs visit certain flowers and may have a role in their pol­lination.

(iv) Entomophily (Insect-Pollinated):

The ma­jority of flowers are insect pollinated. Insect pollinated flowers are made attractive to in­sects in different ways. The pollens are sticky with a rough surface so that they may easily stick to insect limbs. The stigma is also sticky and thus receives the pollens more easily, e.g., salvia, mango, sunflower, jasmine, lady of the night and poppy.

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