Essential branches of modern geography are given below:
In the present day world geography is no more considered as a mere collection of meaningless facts to be memorized and reproduced whenever required.
Present day geography covers a vast field and comprises many branches.
The method of scientific study has taken a full control of the scope and study of geography. Now in study of geography we include the process of adjustment of human beings with their physical and natural environment (human geography). Geography today has a social responsibility as well and it ties to create and develop good citizens.
The scope of study of geography is growing every day. The scope of geography has become so vast and complex that a need was felt for specialization.
For purpose of specialization the subject matter of geography has now been divided into various branches such as physiogeograpliy, glaciology, seismology, hydrology, climatology.
In addition to various branches of geography dealt with in .previous section (section 1.3) some other important branches of modern geography are:
It deals with the conception, design and execution of maps, and the art of drawing maps and charts. It is quite helpful in geodetic and topographic surveys. It is also used in preparing maps on certain selected scales. A working knowledge of cartography is essential for every student of geography because it helps in preparation of maps and also in reading maps.
(ii) Urban Geography:
In this branch of geography emphasis is placed on concepts of location, interaction and accessibility as also the distribution and movement of population. It takes up all the aspects of urban population such as land use patterns, socio-economic composition, age structure, sex structure, housing sites, employment etc.
It deals with the study of distribution of human beings on the earth in relation to their geographical environment. It bears the same relationship to anthropology as biogeography bears to biology and zoogeography bears to zoology.
(iv) Agricultural Geography:
In this branch of geography emphasis is placed on understanding the particular kinds of farms and farming systems that have been developed in particular areas. An effort is also made to find out the similarities and differences in farms and farming systems of different areas.
Such a comparative study is quite helpful in understanding how different kinds of agriculture are distributed over the earth and how they function.