5 main classification of geography

Main classi­fication of geography are given below:

(i) Physical Geography:

This branch of geography deals with various physical factors such as the land, the sea and the atmosphere. It also deals with the study of various phenomenons connected with these physical factors.

The study of laws that govern the movement and formation of earth, the ocean and its waters, the climate and the vegetation are included in physical geography.

IMG_0968 Land, Sea, Sky Iceland | Taken on the island of ...

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(ii) Human Geography:

Carl Ritter, the German Philosopher emphasized the human experience in regional context. This human factor is thus a recent addition to the subject matter of Geography. In Geography we study human acti­vities in relation to physical and Geographical environ­ment.

Man is carrying out different types of activities which influence the physical factors. For example he takes to agriculture, poultry farming, establishing big industries etc.

(iii) Economic Geography:


It is also a new branch of geography and it deals with the study of influences of various geographical factors on the economic activities of man. In economic geography we take up the detailed studies of various industrial activities like manufacturing of goods, agricultural production, means of communication and transport etc.

The study of the Mineral Wealth of a country also forms the subject matter of economic Geography. Economic geography is gaining importance because of the importance of economic factors in modern day world. A careful study of economic geography can be used to bring about a development of economic conditions.

(IV) Political Geography:

The branch of geography which forms the part of syllabi in higher classes deals with the government of states and countries. The subject matter of this branch of geography is the political divisions with special reference to different physical factors. For this purpose the whole of the world is divided into political divisions known as countries or Lands.


In this branch of geography we make a study of land, sea, progress and development of various industries of a country. It is the least developed branch of geography and there is enough scope for expansion of its horizons,

(v) Historical geography:

In this branch of geography an attempt is made to take up the study of various factors (geographical) that have influenced human beings since “ancient times. Thus such a study provides a chronological study of influences of geographical factors on human life. These studies are quite helpful in assessing the influences of physical factors on various human activities. Such knowledge is quite beneficial to the students.

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