Principles used for teaching geography at junior high school stage are as follows:
At this age (about 12-13) known as the age of preamble of adolescence. At this age the child starts looking things in a realistic manner and they become pragmatic.
They can also understand cause and effect relationship and they can analyze the events. At this stage they move from the world of imagination to world of realism. They can draw conclusions.
At this age the child wants to take a leading part in life. Because of these psychological changes taking place in child he requires a change in the methods of teaching. Thus the method of teaching of geography should be different from the one used at primary stage.
When the student enter a junior high school he is capable of acquiring knowledge with the help of charts, models etc. He can make generalizations and is interested to know the practical utility of a subject. Thus at this stage geography be taught to him keeping the above points in mind.
In the light of the above discussion the following guiding principles be used for teaching of geography at junior high school stage.
(i) An effort is made to strengthen the previous knowledge of the students.
(ii) An attempt is made to make the students understand the importance of human life and natural environment.
(iii) Whole things are analyzed on cause and effect relationship.
(iv) Teacher should provide opportunities which develop the curiosity, power of imagination, learning, reasoning etc. in the students.
(v) Students are trained to appreciate the human life under different geographical conditions. For this the students are made to understand the effect of various geographical factors on human life.
(vi) An effort is made to circulate in students a tendency to understand geography in a developed form and a capacity to study geography.
(vii) An effort is made to train the students in the use of charts, models, maps etc.
(viii) At this stage the student is taught the world geography in addition to the geography of his home country.