Formal steps of lesson planning in geography are listed below

Formal steps of lesson planning in geography are listed below:

(i) Introduction (or preparation)

(ii) Presentation

(iii) Association (or comparison)

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(iv) Generalization

(v) Application

(vi) Recapitulation


1. Introduction

It pertains to preparing and motivating children to the lesson content by linking it to the previous knowledge of the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal to their senses.

This prepares the child’s mind to receive new knowledge. This step though so important must be brief. It may involve testing of previous knowledge of the child. Sometimes the curiosity of pupil can be aroused by some experiment, chart, model, and story or even by some useful discussion.

2. Presentation


It involves the stating of the object of lesson and exposure of students to new information. The actual lesson begins and both teacher and students participate. Teacher should make use of different teaching aids to make his lesson effective.

Teacher should draw as much as is possible from the students making use of judicious questions. In science lesson it is desirable that a heuristic atmosphere prevails in the class.

3. Association

It is always desirable that new ideas or knowledge be associated to the daily life situations by citing suitable examples and by drawing comparisons with the related concepts. This step is all the more important when we are establishing principles or generalizing definitions.

4. Generalization

In science lessons generally the learning material leads to certain generalizations leading to establishment of certain formulas, principles or laws. An effort be made that the students draw the conclusions themselves. Teacher should guide the students only if their generalization is either incomplete or irrelevant.

5. Application

In this step of lesson plan the knowledge gained is applied to certain situations. This step is in conformity with the general desire of the students to make use of generalization in order to see for themselves if the generalizations are valid in certain situations or not? No lesson of science may be considered complete if such rules, principles, formula etc. are not applied to life situations.

6. Recapitulation

In this last step of his lesson plan the teacher tries to ascertain whether his students have understood and grasped the subject matter or not. This is used for assessing the effectiveness of the lesson by asking students questions on the contents of the lesson.

Recapitulation can also be done by giving a short objective type test to the class or even by asking the students to label some unlabelled sketch.

One most important point to remember is that the sue steps given above for lesson planning are formal Herbaria steps and teacher should not try to follow these very rigidly. These are only guide lines and in many a lessons it is not possible to follow all these steps.

There is another way of lesson planning which is gaining currency these days. It is known as Glover Plan.

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