Facts on Indian Geography

Facts on Indian Geography

: Learn the most important facts and factors about Indian Geography. This article includes significant information on various Geographical terms and projects. Waiting for some more information on Indian Geography from your side. Please share your comments below. 

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Geographical Terms :


Irrigation : Water is very important for the survival of all forms of life plants as well as animal. India, by virtue of its peculiar placement in the foothills of the Himalayas and having the ranges of the Satpura, Arvalli and the Deccan Plateau running through it, has vast water resource which have been very meagerly tapped. Conventional and recognized means of irrigation are tanks, wells and canals.

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Wells : Well irrigation is an important type of irrigation in India. Wells are particularly suitable for small farms. The important well-irrigated States are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. In these States water-table is high, soil is soft and, therefore, wells are easily sunk. Tubewells are an important development in India. They are worked by electricity or diesel oil and thus, they relieve our cattle of much of the strain. They are being quickly developed in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab. This is because these have ample sub-soil water.

Tanks : Tanks are also important and ancient source of irrigation. They are of considerable importance in central and southern India, specially in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. About 8 percent of the total irrigated area is irrigated by tanks.


Canals : Canals are the most important means of irrigation in the country. Some canals were constructed by the early Hindi and Mohammedan kings. Most of the canals, however, are the product of the British rule. At present, canals irrigated about 39 percent of total irrigated area of India. Most of the canals of the country are found in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Storage canals have been constructed in Deccan and Madhya Pradesh.

Major, Medium and Minor Irrigation Projects : The methods of irrigation used in India can be broadly classified into major, medium and minor irrigation schemes. Irrigation project having Culturable Command Area (CCA) of more than 10,000 hectares each are classified as major projects. Those having a CCA between 2,000 hectares and 10,000 hectares fall under the category of medium irrigation projects. And the projects which have a CCA of less than 2,000 hectares are classified as minor irrigation schemes. For the purpose of analysis the major and the medium irrigation projects are generally grouped together. These projects comprise a network of dams, buns, canals and other such schemes. Such projects require substantial financial outlay and are, therefore, constructed by the government or any other agency which may draw financial assistance from the government and financial institutions. The minor irrigation projects, on the other hand, comprise all ground water development schemes such as dug wells, private shallow tubewells, deep public tubewells, boring and deepening of dugwells, and small surface water development works such as stroage tanks, lift irrigation projects, etc. Minor irrigation projects or the groundwater development schemes are essentially people’s programmes implemented primarily through individual and co-operative efforts with finances obtained mainly through institutional sources.

Before 1951, the total irrigated area in India was only 22.6 million hectares of which 9.7 million hectare land was irrigated through major and medium irrigation projects and 12.9 million hectares through minor irrigation schemes. This has now gone up to 94.37 million hectares at the end of 1999-2000.

Some Irrigation and Multipurpose Projects In India


Bargi Project : (Madhya Pradesh) : It is a multipurpose project consisting of masonry dam across Bargi river in the Jabalpur district and a left bank canal.
Beas Project : (Joint venture of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan) : It consists of Beas-Sutlej Link and Beas Dam at Pong.

Bhadra Project : (Karnataka) : A multi-purpose project across the river Bhadra.

Bhakra Nangal Project : ( Joint project of Haryana, Punjab and Rajashtan : India’s biggest, multipurpose river valley project comprises a straight gravity dam across the Sutlej river at Bhakra, the Nangal dam, the Nangal hydel channel, two power houses at Bhakra dam and two power stations at Ganguwal and Kotla.

Bhima Project (Maharashtra) : Comprises two dams, one on the Pawana river near Phagne in Pune district and the other across the Krishna river near Ujjaini in Sholapur district.

Chambal Project : (Joint project of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan ) : The project comprises Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar dam.

Damodar Valley Project ( West bengal and bihar) : A multipurpose project for the unified development of irrigation, flood control and power generation in West Bengal and Bihar. It comprises multipurpose dams at Konar, Tilaiya, Maithon and Panchet; hydro power stations at Tilaiya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet; barrage at Durgapur; and thermal power houses at Bokaro, Chandrapura and Durgapur. The project is administrated by the Damodar valley Corporation.

Dulhasti Power Project ( Jammu & Kashmir ) : It is a 390 MW power project in Kishtwar region of Jammu & Kashmir on Chenab river. Work for this project started in 1981. The foundation stone was laid on April 15,, 1983 by the ten Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. work on this project was suspended due to threats of kidnapping and killings by Kashmiri militants resulting in long delay in completion of project.

Gandak Project (Joint project of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) : Nepal also dervies irrigation and power benefits from this project.

Hirakuad (Orissa) : World’s longest dam, is located on the Mahanadi River.

Jayakwadi Project (Maharashtra) : A masonry spillway across the river Godavari.

Kahalgaon Project (Bihar) : The 840 – MW Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Project, a joint venture between National Thermal Power Corporation and the Russian State Enterprise Foreign Economic Association, was on August 12, 1996 commissioned and put into commercial operation.

Kakrapara Project (Gujarat) : On the Tapti river near Kakrapara, in Surat district.

Kangsabati Project (West Bengal) : The project, put in operation in 1965, is located on the Kangsabati and Kumari rivers.

Karjan Project (Gujarat) : A masonry dam across Karjan river enar Jitgarh village in Nandoo Taluka of Bharuch district.

Kosi Project (Bihar) : A multipurpose project, which serves Bihar and Nepal.

Koyna Project (Maharashtra) : It is built on a tributary of river Krishna with a capacity of 880 MW. It feeds power to Mumbai-Pune industrial belt.

Krishna Project (Maharashtra) : Dhom dam near Dhom village on Krishna and Kanbar dam near Kanbar village on Varna river in Satan district.

Kukadi Project (Maharashtra) : Five independent storage dam, i.e. Yodgaon, Manikdohi, Dimbha, Wadaj and Pimpalgaon Jog, The canal system compries (i) Kukadi left bank canal, (ii) Dimbha left bank canal, (iii) Dimbha righ bank canal, (iv) Meena feeder and (v) Meena branch.

Kundoh Project (Tamil Nadu) : It is in Tmil Nadu whose initial capacity of 425 MW has since been expanded to 535 MW.

Left Bank Ghaghra Canal ( Uttar Pradesh : A link channel taking off from the left bank of Ghaghra river of Girja barrage and joining with Sarju river. Also a barrage acroos Sarju.

Madhya Ganga Canal (Uttar Pradesh) : A barrage across Ganga in Bijore district.

Mahanadi Delta Scheme (Orissa) : The irrigation scheme will utilize releases from the Hirakud reservoir.

Mahi Project (Gujarat) : A two-phase project, one across the Mahi river near Wanakbore village and the other across Mahi river near Kadana.

Malaprabha Project (Karnataka) : A dam across the Malaprabha in Belgaum district.

Mayurakshi Project (West bengal) : An irrigation and hydro-electric projectj comprises the Canada dam.

Minimato Bango Hasdeo Project (Madhya Pradesh) : This project is located at Hasdeo Bango river in Korba district and envisages construction of a masonry dam. A hydro power plant of 120 MW capacity has been commissioned on the Bango dam.

Nagarjunasagar (Andhra Pradesh) : On the Krishna river near Nandikona village (about 44 km from Hyderabad).

Panamj Project (Gujarat): A gravity masonry dam across Panam river near Keldezar village in Panchmahal district.

Parambijulam Aliyar (Joint venture of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) : The integrated harnessing of eight rivers, six in the Annamalai Hills and two in the plains.

Pochampad ( Andhra Pradesh) :Across Godavari river.

Pong Dam (Punjab) : It is an important bydro-electric project located on Beas river.

Rjasthan Canal (Indria Gandhi Canal – Rajasthan ) : The project uses water released from Pong dam and provides irrigation facilitiesto the north-western region of Rajasthan, i.e., a part of the Thar desrt. It consists of Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 167 km in Punjab and Haryna and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan) and 445 km Rajasthan main canal entirely in Rajasthan.

Ramganga ( Uttaranchal) : A dam across Ramganga, a tributary of the Ganga river located in Garhwal district. The project has, besides reducing the intensity of floods in central and western Uttar Pradesh, provided water for the Delhi wate supply scheme.

Ranjit Sagar Dam (Thein Dam) (Punjab) : A multi-purpose highest dam in the counrty, built on the Ravi river for the benefit of Punjab, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir.

Rihand Project (Utttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh ) : It is the largest man-made lake in India on the borders of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh with a capacity of 300 MW annually.

Sabarmati (Gujarat) : A storage dam across Sabarmati river near Dhari village in Mehsana district and Wasba barrage near Ahmedabad.

Salal Project (Jammu & Kashmir) : With the successful completion of the 2.5 km long tailrace tunnel, the 690-MW Salal (State 1 and II0 project, in Jammu and Kashmir became fully opertional on August 6, 1996.

Sarda Sahayak (Uttar Pradesh) : A barrage across the River Ghaghra, a link channel, a barrage across River Sarda and a feeder channel of two major aqueducts over river Gomti and Sai.

Shravathy Project (Karnataka) : It is located at the Jog Falls with a capacity of 891 MW. It primarily feeds Bangalore industrial region and also Goa and Tamil Nadu.

Sone High Level Canal (Bihar) : An extension on Sone barrage project.

Tawa Project (Madhya Prdesh) : A project across the Tawa river, a tributary of the Narmada in Hoshangabad district.

Tehri Dam Project (Uttaranchal) : Earth and rock-fill dam on Bhagirathi river in Tehri district.

Tungabhadra Project (Joint Project of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka) : On the Tungabhdra river.

Ukai Project (Gujarat) : A multipurpose project across Tapti river near Ukai village.

Upper Penganga Project (Maharashtra) : Two reservoirs on Penganga ricer at isapur in avatmal district and the other on Rayadhu river at Sapil in Parbhani district.

Uri Power Project (Jammu & Kashmir) : It is located on the river Jhelum in the Uri Tehsil of baramulla district in Jammu & Kashmir. It is a 480-MW hydroclectric project which was dedicated to the nation on February 13, 1997.

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