i. The land of a collective farm (Kolkhozi) is the State property but it is leased to the association of till farm workers (the Cartel) and is worked in the direction of a committee selected by the members’ of Kolkhozi. On small plots farmers keep cows, pigs, poultry, and birds and can also grow some olericultural and horticultural crops.
ii. The size of the farm is large.
iii. The Kolkhozis are highly mechanised. There used to be machine tractor stations (MTS) for the repair of machinery.
iv. The State taxation charged from the artel is in absolute terms and not in proportion to production. Therefore, it provides an incentive to the farm workers to accelerate production.
The sharing (produce is based on labour-days (mandays) put in by a farm worker. The work done, the time spent and the skill required are taken into account for the determination and payment of wages.
v. This system came to be applied to a greater or lesser extent in other countries-erstwhile East Germany (now, Germany), Hungary, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, Albania, Cuba and North Korea.
vi. Collective farms are not only confined to erstwhile communist countries but are common in many parts of the world.
vii. The Israeli Kibbutz is notable examples of such collective systems of the non-communist countries. In Kibbutz, the farmers are free to determine and follow their own programmes and there is minimum government intervention.