i. The characteristics of the commercial livestock and crop farming are the result of the combination numerous factors, such as physical, economic, political and social.
The combination of physical fad and human circumstances varies considerably and as a result there are large varieties of enterprises in the commercial livestock and crop farming regions of the world.
ii. Holdings are of variable size. The farms have individual and family ownership and are operated family labour.
iii. The most distinctive characteristic of mixed farming is the integration of crops and livestock, can also be called as mixed farming.
The ratio of cropland to total agricultural land is undoubted very high but at the same time the intensity of livestock production is much higher. Most of thee grown on a mixed commercial farm are fed to the animals rather than consumed directly by humans
iv. Mixed farms are characterised by high expenditure on machinery and farm buildings, extensive use manures and fertilisers and also by the input of technical skill by the farmers who need to knowa all aspects of farming to grow and market their range of products successfully.
v. A variety of crops are grown in the mixed farming region. Cereals dominate the crop land use; I leading grain vary with climate and soil.
vi. In mixed crop and livestock farming, the farmers’ workload is distributed throughout the year.
vii. The livestock farmer maintains soil fertility by using a system of crop rotation in which differentc is planted in successive years.
viii. The return in commercial mixed farming is relatively high because of the intensiveness of applicali of labour and capital to land.
ix. Extensive nature of cultivation: Extensive cultivation implies farming on large holdmgs empl Se labour and a greater use of farm machinery, such that the yield per man is high. High de mechanisation reduces labour requirement and requires a large size of farming unit.
x. The output per unit of land is always low as compared to regions where intensive cultivation common practice. Despite low yields per unit of land, the farming is commercial because ofa surplus (the per capita production is high).
xi. Extensive commercialised grain farming is subject to climatic vagaries like drought, hail and Dlant diseases and attack by pests and insects. Commercial wheat farmers are at the mer unpredictable rainfall.
Droughts in the Prairies or the Ukraine may last for several yearsj farming difficult. Severe winter frosts or summer heat waves reduce yields drastically. The netei fluctuation in productivity and crop failures
i. Large scale commercial grain cultivation is found in only five countries-the United States, W CIS, Argentina and Australia.
ii. Best developed in the Eurasian Steppes in region of chernozem soil, east of the Volga Riv northern Kazakastan and the southern part of western Siberia; the Canadian and American Prai the Pampas of Argentina; the Veldt of South Africa; the Australian Downs; and the Canter’ Plain of New Zealand.