i. In this type of farming, farmers produce crops and raise livestock mainly for their own subsistence and sell nothing in the local market. Since they earn no cash income, they cannot afford to buy modern machinery and good breeding stock.
ii. The methods employed to grow subsistence crops and to raise the low-grade animals are primitive.
iii. Seeds are of poor quality and animals are poorly husbanded.
iv. Labour is intensively applied to the land under cultivation, but little attention is paid to the land meanl for grazing.
v. The farming is generally subsistence in nature and the bulk of the farm produce is consumed directly by farmers and their families.
vi. The most important crops grown are barley and wheat in cereals. Rye and maize are the chief food grains for the people, and potatoes and barley are other staples.
Parts of south Mexico, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, etc. but the agricultural activities is increasingly becoming’ more commercial in organisation and practice in these countries.