The structure and functioning of biosphere is similar to that of an ecosystem. The biosphere consists of a non-living environment and a living biological community. So, a biosphere has two main components:
1. The non-living components (or abiotic components).
2. The living components (or biotic components).
The non-living components of biosphere consist of matter such as air, water, soil and minerals. The living components of biosphere consist of organisms like plants and animals, which can be further categorized into producers, consumers and decomposers.
Functioning of biosphere :
The producer organisms absorb carbon dioxide and water from abiotic environment like air, water, etc. and prepare food by utilizing sunlight energy. The producers are eaten by consumer organisms during which food and energy are transferred to consumers. When consumers and producers die, then the decomposer organisms decompose the dead plant and animal remains to form carbon-dioxide, water, etc. which are returned to abiotic environment. This is repeated again and again.