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What is Soil-forming Processes by Translocation?

Also called Transfer processes it involves internal reorganisation of matter and redistribution of energy, but involving movement, e.g., translocation of iron, clay, humus, and hydrated ions, diffusion of gases, ion exchange, and mass-movement and through flow, capillary rise, mixing by soil fauna, cryoturbation.

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The various types of translocation processes are

Leaching

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The process by which water is percolating downwards through a soil, removes humus in solution, soluble bases and sesquioxides from the upper horizon or A-horizon. The upper layer of a leached soil becomes increasingly acidic and mineral deficient. It is most prounced in humid areas than in dry areas.

Podzolization

The formation in organic acids of soluble chelates (organic-metallic complexes of Fe, Al), and the dissociation of clay humus colloids, susceptible to leaching

The Process of Pedogenesis

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Laterization

(Now called Ferralization) It occurs in the humid tropics where heavy rain and uninterrupted warmth give rise to a deeply weathered layer.

Dense forests produce a heavy leaf fall, but bacteria break this down at one: the circulation or mineral nutrients are particularly rapid.

Leaching is heavy, but silica is removed rather than iron or aluminium, which accumulate at the surface. The removal of the silica leaves a porous and firm soil, rather than a soft and sticky one.

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In regions of more marked dry season, the alternation of wet and dry conditions gives rise to increased movement in to soil, and the formation of iron crusts.

Calcification

Used by some to refer to the processes of calcium carbonate accumulation. This term is not specific. It leads to the formation of pedocals, e.g., chernozem chestnut soil slightly alkaline (basic). Pedocals have:

i. A Horizon: humus-rich. Bases abundant and brought to soil surface by grasses

ii. B Horizon: nodules and slabs of calcium brought up from parent rock by capillary action and evaporated out.

iii. Climatic Types: temperate continental; tropical wet-dry.

iv. Climate: dry enough (600 mm) to inhibit leaching. Dry season necessary warm enough in summer (20°C) for evaporation to act

Gleyisation

The reduction of iron in an anaerobic or water logged environment leading to the formation of grey or blue colours. Not a very good term because it includes a very large number of individual processes.

Salinization

It involves the accumulation of highly soluble sodium, magnesium and potassium salts in a soil. Salinisation usually occurs in arid and semi-arid areas where evaporation rates exceed those of precipitation, especially in coastal regions and areas with underlying evaporate deposits.

High air and ground temperatures cause evaporation and the deposition of salts from the groundwater. Salinisation can also result from the excessive and wrongly timed application of irrigation water.

Irrigation followed by a lengthy hot, dry phase can result in a substantial upward movement of salts, which accumulate as a salt pan.

One example of salinisation is found in northwestjndia particularly in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh where surface irrigation has led to a rise in the water table.

The process of salinization causes the formation of Solonchak soils, i.e., the accumulation of soluble salts in the soil (sulphates and chlorides of sodium and calcium).

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