Geography is becoming a popular subject for secondary schools because for the following reasons:
Geography is increasingly becoming a popular subject in secondary schools in India.
It has been found that the position of geography in the school curriculum is most unsatisfactory. In secondary schools the syllabus in geography be so framed that it may be taught as a distinctive science and a planned continuity of geography teaching could be followed.
The syllabus be changed and kept up-to-date in conformity with the growing demands of the developing countries. The course material at this stage should be oriented towards physical geography. Even while teaching geography a regional basis due emphasis is placed on both human and physical factors.
While teaching regional geography due emphasis is placed on local geography. The syllabus should start from immediate surroundings and most of the time in first year of high school course be devoted to teaching of physical geography and then world geography and regional geography be taught.
We thus find that there are three components of secondary school geography.
(i) Physical geography and weather observation.
(ii) Regional geography, and
The curriculum of geography at the secondary stage may be subdivided under the following headings:
(i) General study of the world other than the country in which the pupil resides.
(ii) Study of home country and its relationship with other countries of the world.
(iii) While studying the world geography the following areas be emphasized:
(a) Movement of various planets, sun, earth etc.
(b) Formation of day and night, change of seasons, movement of earth, change of weather, longitude and latitude.
(c) Surface of the land, flow of river and its causes, various water divisions of the world, currents, Ebb and tide etc.
(d) Atmosphere, weather, climate, temperature, pressure, rainfall, bands and divisions of the world, cyclone, etc.
(e) Influence of physical conditions on human activities.
(f) Important cereals and crops of the world, raw material.
(g) Mineral wealth and power.
(h) Routes of trade and development of big cities.
While carrying out the study of home country and effort be made to acquaint the child about maximum of details of the country. For this purpose maps, atlases and other teaching aids be used freely.
To acquaint the students with home country tours and excursions be organized. For this specific purpose the regional method of teaching of geography be followed. The study of the following is included:
(i) Situations and locations of various physical divisions of the world, their longitude, latitude etc.
(ii) Students are asked to measure the length and breadth of a specified region from the map so that they get a clear idea of physical divisions of the world.
(iii) Study of natural or physical conditions including study of mountains, rivers, peaks etc.
(iv) To know the climate and its qualities a study of maximum and minimum thermometer be included.
(v) Study of pressure of area and wind.
(vi) Study of rain fall in the area.
(vii) A detailed study of mineral wealth of area.
(viii) A complete study of animal wealth of area.
(ix) Study of industry, art, craft and trade.
(x) Comparative study of location of various trades and industries.
(xi) Study of industrial tours and cities.
(xii) Study of population.
While taking up the teaching of world geography different teachers follow different order of treatment of continents. However it has now been concluded on the basis of various studies that the three southern continents should always be taught before Europe and North America.
While taking up the regional study of continents generally we teach about India. In some cases Eurasia is taken up in Sixth class and southern continents and Europe are taught in higher classes.