Till 1945 imperialism continued to increase. During the Second World War (1939-45) Japan conquered a major part of South-East Asia.
In 1939 when the Second World War broke out, the following were the different forms of imperialism.
(1) Subject Countries:
The British conquered India, Sri Lanka and Burma in eighteenth and nineteenth century and established their control over these countries. France established her control over Algeria and Indo-China.
Holland established her control over Indonesia. Spain and Portugal established their supremacy over several countries of Latin America. Many national movements were started in these countries to achieve freedom and after the Second World War these countries attained freedom.
Malta, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Aden, and many colonies of Africa and Guinean were under the British Empire and their administration was run by the British Colonial Department. These colonies have attained freedom, but there only very few colonies whose administration is being run by the Colonial Department. Freedom movement has been started in these colonies, and they are clamouring for independence. It is hoped that within a few years, these colonies would attain freedom.
Today Canada, New Zealand, Australia are dominions. Previously South Africa was also a dominion, but now it has left the Commonwealth and it has become Republic. Canada, New Zealand and Australia were under the British control sometime back, but later on movements for getting more rights started there.
Consequently, the government granted them Dominion Status. Now these countries are internally and externally free, but they maintain a nominal allegiance towards the British Queen. They are also the members of the .
Protectorates were the countries which in spite of having their separate wings and government were under the control of other countries in economic matter. Their foreign policies were also controlled by them. For example, after the First World War, Egypt was a protectorate of the British government.
(5) Mandated Territories:
This is a new form of imperialism which took birth after the First World War. In the First World War, Germany and Turkey were defeated. Many of their colonies were taken away from them and these colonies were placed under the control of the League of Nations.
England, France and their allies had a special influence in the League of Nations on the condition that so long as these colonies were not in a position to manage their own affairs, these countries would run their administration. It was the duty of these ruling countries would run their administration.
It was the duty of these ruling countries to train those colonies for self-rule. For this purpose, they had to submit an annual report to the League of Nations. Thus under the orders of the League of Nations, Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan and Tanganyika were put under the control of the Great Britain.
France took over the administration of Syria and Lebanon. South Africa was given the control of South-West Africa (Namibia). When after the end of the League of Nations, the U.N. was established, the Mandated Territories of the League of Nations, were then put under the control of the U.N. in 1947, under the Trusteeship System of the U.N., Cameroons and Togoland were placed under the French and the British control jointly.
Somaliland was placed under the control of Italy, (Somaliland was previously a colony of Italy). The control of New Zealand was established on West Somoa. Ruanda-Urundi was put under the administrative control of Belgium. Nauru was administered by Australia on behalf of Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom.
Pacific Island (Marshalls, Marianas with the exception of Gaum and Carolines were put under the control of America. Most of these mandated territories have attained independence and only one island remains under the control of U.S.A.
It looks after the administration of these territories. The ruling countries submit a report to the Trusteeship Council relating to the administration of these territories in which the account of progress of the administration of these territories is given.
With the efforts of the U.N. the British Togoland, Italian Somaliland, French Togoland and Cameroons have attained independence. Tangayika has also been freed. Ruanda-Urandi has been freed from the control of Belgium. The rest of the colonies will also be freed in the near future.
In order to maintain their influence over weak countries, the imperialist countries acquire some of their provinces on lease. Before the World War II, many of the Chinese provinces were under the lease. The ports of Port Arthur and Darian were with Japan on lease.
Bay High Way was with the Great Britain and an area of five miles on either side of Panama Canal was with the U.S.A. on lease. Hong Kong was on lease for 100 years with Great Britain but its occupation might end in 1990, but Namibia has not been freed by South Africa in spite of the best efforts of U.N.
Where the interests of imperialist countries clashed, they entered into mutual agreements4o avoid war. They used to establish a joint control over the disputed territories or divide the areas of influence among themselves. For example, before the Second World War, France and Britain had a joint control over New Hebrides; England and Egypt over Sudan; France, Spain and Britain over Tansier of Morocco. Similarly, America, France and Britain divided Shanghai.
(8) Financial Control:
When a country is unable to repay the loans, the country advancing the loan controls a part of that country, so that it may realize its money. For example, before the Second World War the Chinese government had handed over some sources of her income to other countries in order to pay off her debts. After the World War I, a part of the resources of the German income was put under the control of England and France in order to pay off the war indemnity.
In order to increase the area of their influence, the imperialist countries send their traders and missionaries. A great number of these traders and missionaries settle there and gradually increase their influence. They put forth the demand that the laws of those countries should not be imposed on them and they should be governed only under the laws of the country of their origin. In the beginning when Britishers established their business houses at Surat and other cities of India, they demanded similar facilities from the rulers of those places and sometimes they were given these facilities.
(10) Spheres of Influence:
In modern times, the imperialist countries give economic, technical and military aid in order to increase the area of their influence. Under this very policy, China gave many tanks to Pakistan during 1964-65. China also gave economic aid to certain African countries. The United States of America, Great Britain, France etc., are also giving economic, technical and military aid to many backward countries for this purpose.